Introduction: One of the most important goals of periodontitis therapy is the elimination of deep periodontal pockets. In regenerative periodontal therapy, different types of bone grafts, membranes, growth factors, etc. are used to improve regeneration of lost periodontal tissue.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surgical therapy supported by the use of bone replacement material in the treatment of deep intrabony pockets, compared to surgical treatment (flap surgery) without the use of bone replacement in advanced periodontitis.
Methods and materials: The study included 50 patients of both sexes with advanced periodontitis, divided into two groups. After initial periodontal therapy was performed, plaque index (PI), papillary bleeding index (PBI) were verified, and depth of periodontal pockets was measured in both groups. One group (group 1) of the patients underwent surgical therapy, open flap surgery, while the other group (group 2) underwent the same surgical treatment method (open flap surgery), during which bone defects were filled with bone replacement material. Results: The results showed that both group 1 and group 2 experienced improvements after periodontal surgical therapy. In group 1, there are no statistically significant changes in all three plaque index measurements (PI), while there has been a significant reduction in PI in group 2 following the surgery. For the PBI index, it was determined that there were statistically significant changes in values in group 1, both after surgical procedures and six months later, as well as in group 2. Statistical analysis of the results of the probing depth of pockets has shown that there are significant changes in the measurement of the depth of periodontal pocket one month after the surgery, as well as six months later, meaning that there has been a significant reduction in the depth of the periodontal pocket one month following the surgery as well as six months later, for both groups. However, we did not determine a statistically significant difference in the probing depth of pockets between these two groups. Conclusion: Six months after a surgical therapy, clinical parameters showed a reduction of the probing depth of the periodontal pocket in both examined groups. The use of bone replacement did not yield significantly better results in reducing the depth of probing compared to the standard flap surgery. We believe that future research should focus on testing the effectiveness of new regenerative methods and materials (bone replacements with various properties, membranes, and surgical methods) that will result in better treatment results with predictable outcomes.
periodontal regeneration;intrabony defect;bone replacement