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Med Arh. 2017; 71(5): 325-329


Myometrium Invasion, Tumour Size and Lymphovascular Invasion as a Prognostic Factor in Dissemination of Pelvic Lymphatics at Endometrial Carcinoma

Nenad Lucic; Dragica Draganovic; Sanja Sibincic; Vesna Ecim-Zlojutro; Snjezana Milicevic.

Abstract
Objective: The aim of this work is to show the importance of the depth of myometrium invasion, tumour size and lymphovascular invasion as prognostic factors in dissemination of lymphatic nodes at endometrial carcinoma (CE). Materials and methods: In the period from 2010 to 2015 at the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Banja Luka, 221 endometrial cancer surgeries were done (laparatomy 184-83%, laparascopy 37-16,74%). Patients who had uterus bleeding in peri/postmenopause or those whose endometrium thickness was bigger than 5 mm which was established by ultrasound, or those who had in their cavum uteri pathological (PH) diagnosis, underwent fractional curettage (FC) or hysteroscopy in order to obtain pathohistological endometrium diagnosis. Substances which were removed by fractional curettage, biopsy or by surgery were sent to patohystological analysis. We analysed the following factors: age (5 groups), histological grade (G) of tumour, depth of myometrial invasion (DIM), whether it is more or less than 50%, the size of the tumour (if it is bigger or smaller than 2 cm), positive or negative lymphovascular invasion (LVI), positive or negative pelvic lymph nodes (PLN). Results: Within histological type the endometrioid type CE 166 (75,11%) was most dominant. Adenocarcinoma of endometrium was present 25 (11,31%), serous CE 11 (4,97%) and clear cell KE 2 (0,90%). Dominant population with CE was over 60 years old 127 (57,46 ) of female patients. At G3 where DIM was 50%, 6 (26,73%) patients with positive PLN were registred. Tumour size < 2 cm was found with 57 (25,79%) female patients with positive PLN 8 (14,03%), while 164 (74,20%) patients had tumours > 2 cm who had 21 (12,80) PLN metastases. At G1 when tumour was 2 cm, positive PLN were found at 6 patients (9,69%). At G3 whose size was 2 cm, PLN metastases were more frequent, 6 (25,00%). Negative LVI was found with 168 patients (76,01%) whose PLN were positive 16 (9,52%), while positive LIV was with 53 patients (23,99%) of whom 14 had PLN metastases (26,41%). At G1 two patients had positive PLN (2,32%) with negative LVI, while with positive LVI, positive PLN were found at 3 patients (11,11%). At G3 having negative LVI positive PLN were found with 6 patients (24,00%), while if LIV was positive, the number of positive PLN were 6 (54,54%). Conclusions: With low risk for lymphatic spread (DIM less than 50%, tumour size smaller than 2 cm and lack of LVI at G1 CE) we also encounter low metastasis rate of PLN. Diagnoses of this kind have an aim to lower the number of pelvic lymphadenectomies. With patients who have a high risk of lymphatic spread ( myometrium invasion >50%, tumour size > 2cm, LVI present at G2 and G3) metastasis rate of PLN is high, therefore it is necessary to perform pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy which lowers the mortality rate for more than 50% and at the same time patients get an absolute chance of 5-year survival period.

Key words: Lymphovascular Invasion;Tumor Size;Depth of Myometrial Invasion;Metastases;Pelvic Lymph Node;Endometrial;Carcinoma


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