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Risk Factors contributing to Methylation Shifts in BRCA1 and associated genes in African Americans with Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Anson Marsh; Sathees Chandra.

Abstract
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains one of the most lethal breast cancers while only accounting for 10-20% of all breast cancers. Mortality rates are a staggering 50%, with high likelihood of metastasis to other tissues if left untreated. This is due to this cancerÂ’s heterogeneous nature and differentiation from other breast cancers, negatively staining for common mutations in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2). The patient population is shifted more towards African Americans (AA) with increased incidence and mortality rates. To date the nature of this statistic remains multifaceted with no clear therapeutic regiment. Through the identification of methylation as viable cause for TNBC, the exploration of environmental, genetic, and socioeconomic risk factors serve as an important aspect of overall mortality rate. This review seeks to investigate the relationship between AA with TNBC and potentially important DNA methylation markers that change in response to multiple risk factors.

Key words: Methylation;TNBC;African Americans;Environment;and BRCA1


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