Background: Human parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy may cause fetal loss. The aim of this study was to detect the incidence of B19 infection in cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and in healthy pregnant women.
Material and Methods: Serum samples of pregnant women with NIHF (9), spontaneous abortion (27), IUFD (5) and healthy pregnant women (47) were tested by nested PCR to detect B19 DNA and by ELISA test for B19 specific IgM and IgG antibodies.
In other case series of the study, paraffin-embedded fetal and placental tissue samples from 33 NIHF cases and 19 spontaneous abortion cases and placental tissues from 40 normal pregnant women at term were analyzed for B19 DNA by nested PCR.
Results: B19 infection was diagnosed by PCR and ELISA tests using serum samples in 4 (44%) of 9 NIHF cases and 9 (33%) of 27 spontaneous abortion cases and in 1 (20%) of 5 IUFD cases. In addition, B19 IgG prevalence was found to be 51% (24/47) in the control group.
In other case series, the presence of B19 DNA in fetal and placental tissue samples was found in 14 (42.4%) of 33 NIHF cases and 6 (31.5%) of 19 spontaneous abortion cases, while in none of 40 placental tissues samples from the control group.
Conclusion: Our findings show that the incidence of parvovirus B19 infection in NIHF and spontaneous abortion cases is relatively high. Nested PCR and ELISA tests should be used together for the early diagnosis of B19 infection in pregnant women.
Parvovirus B19;Pregnancy;Hydrops fetalis;Polymerase chain reaction (PCR);B19 IgM antibody;B19 IgG antibody