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Physiological and chemical characteristics of cultivated single cross maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids

Amal Abdelkader.

Abstract
Maize is the principle agricultural crop, considered the third important cereal crop in terms of its great economic importance as constitutes 70% of human food and animal fodder. So far, maize becomes crucial for starch, fructose and oil industries. Several maize breeding programs developed number of withstanding commercial hybrids against many diseases and characterized by high yield production. As hybrids vigor is dependent on transferring assimilates from vegetative to reproductive parts, this study is focused on evaluating some metabolic and chemical parameters of three derived hybrids from the hybridization process. Mineral content, total soluble sugars and total protein were measured in the dry materials of the single cross white maize hybrids (Sc 10, Sc 125 and Sc 132). Sc 10 was superior in Ca, Cu and Zn content, Sc 125 had enclosed higher K content whereas Sc 132 contained the highest amounts of Fe and Si. Total sugars and protein contents have differed between the hybrids. Stalk strength which maintained by normal cellulose synthesis and deposit on the walls has also differed in amount among the hybrids. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 14 hydrocarbon species most of which have biological activities as antioxidants and anticancer. Similarity of the chemical profile and the hydrocarbon content was observed between Sc 10 and Sc 125 hybrid due to their common father 'Sd 7'. This study provides aspects standing beyond the vigorous hybrid and suggests that investigation of the physiological and chemical components of hybrids after each hybridization process is as important as studying the vegetative and yield characters.

Key words: GC-MS;Hybridization;Inbred lines;Maize;Mineral;Protein


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