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Original Article

Case Study Case Rep. 2019; 9(1): advlabmedint2019-7


Kaposi sarcoma in retroviral positive patients: histopathological analysis

Oladobe Peter Oluwole ; BA Abimiku; AU Mukhtar.

Abstract
Oluwole OP, Abimiku BA, Mukhtar AU. Kaposi sarcoma in retroviral positive patients: histopathological analysis. Adv Lab Med Int. 2019; 9: 7 - 12.

ABSTRACT

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric angioproliferative cancer of endothelial origin typically occurring in the context of immunodeficiency, i.e. coinfection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or transplantation. The incidence of KS has dramatically decreased in both US and Europe in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) era. However, KS remains the second most frequent tumor in HIV-infected patients worldwide and it has become the most common cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that Kaposi sarcoma is the most common AIDS-related cancer in our environment. This is a nine-year retrospective histopathology study of all Kaposi sarcoma cases diagnosed between 2001-2009 in the Department of Histopathology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Nigeria. Haematoxylin and Eosin stained histology slides were retrieved, studied and reviewed blindly by three consultants. A total of 31 patients (16 males and 15 females) retroviral patients' whose ages ranged from 10-70 years with a mean age of 40 years. The peak age at diagnosis was in the fourth decade. The youngest patient is a female aged 16 years. The most common site was in the lower limbs 19(61.2%), this was followed 7 (22.5%) unspecified sites, others sites were upper limbs and head and neck respectively. All the tumours were Kaposi sarcoma. The facility to detect KS-associated herpesvirus and viral antigen latency-associated nuclear antigen in the biopsy is not available in our institution as the time of this study; the diagnosis was made purely on Haematoxylin and Eosin stained slides. In conclusion, AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma is common in our environment, it can be diagnosed in a resource-limited setting using traditional Haematoxylin and Eosin under the hand of a well- trained consultant pathologist. Full text available at https://drive.google.com/file/d/1HRW4dBbmP3d9XOWEHnUIuXj7jKz-U6fW/view

Key words: cancer ; Kaposi's sarcoma ;, retrovirus ; HIV ;AIDS



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