In recent years, interest in the relations between the Ottomans and western nations has begun to increase. Lots ofissues cOncerning these relations wait to be elaborated by the researchers from East and West. The present study focuses on the economic concepts behind the relations between the Ottomans and mercantilist western nations in the seventeenth century. It seems that there were some fundamental differences in the economic concepts and aims of the Ottomans and the western nations in the mercantilist ages. This study also elaborates the economic relations between the Ottomans and European nations in the early modern period.