Objective: For many years, the organophosphorus insecticide pirimiphos-methyl (PM) was used as a valuable tool against several stored-product insect species. However, the knowledge of its toxicity for field applicators, manufacturing workers and public health is very limited in literatures. The present work was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the hepato-renal toxicity associated with PM exposure in mice.
Method: Mice were divided into five groups of six mice each and administered PM at doses of 0.03 (ADI), 10 (NOAEL), 31.05 (1/40 LD50) and 62.11 (1/20 LD50) mg/kg body weight in corn oil for 45 days via oral gavage.
Result: The results revealed that the activities of serum enzymes alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and serum levels of total protein, urea and creatinine were significantly elevated (by 13-63% of control activity), whereas the level of serum albumin was significantly reduced (by 15-21%) following administration of 31.05 and 62.11 mg pirimiphos-methyl/kg body weight. In liver and kidney tissues, level of glutathione and the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes were significantly decreased, while the level of lipid peroxidation were significantly increased compared to the control group. The lower doses of (ADI, NOAEL) PM induced insignificant or limited alteration in the above-mentioned biochemical parameters. Histopathological examination revealed hepato-renal cellular damage in all tested doses of PM compared to untreated group.
Conclusion: The intensity of the insults in liver and kidney functions as well as oxidative damage represented by biochemical alterations and histopathological findings were demonstrated in a dose-dependent manner.
Liver function; Kidney function; Oxidative damage; Pirimiphos-methyl; Histopathology