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Short-Term Capacities of Ethanolic Theobroma Cacao Bean Extract to Ameliorate Oxidative Stress, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Paul Chidoka Chikezie.

Abstract
Objectives: The present study ascertained the capacities of ethanolic Theobroma cacao bean extract to ameliorate hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in Type I diabetic rats (T1-DR) following short-term treatment for 64 h. Additionally, erythrocyte haemolysate reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured to establish erythrocyte antioxidant status of T1-DR. Materials and Methods: DM was induced in the experimental rats by a single intra-peritoneal injection of 0.1 mol/L alloxan monohydrate in PBS solution (pH = 7.4) at a dosage of 140 mg/kg body weight. At the end of the treatment period, blood samples were drawn from the orbital sinus and measured for FPGC, erythrocyte haemolysate GSH/GSSH ratio, MDA concentration and serum lipid profile (SLP) using standard methods. Results: Blood samples of T1-DR treated with T. cacao bean extract showed substantial reduction in FPGC but were hyperglycemic. Erythrocyte haemolysate GSH/GSSG ratio and MDA concentrations of T1-DR treated with T. cacao bean extract were significantly different (p < 0.05) from that of untreated group. Generally, the administration of T. cacao bean extract caused readjustments in perturbed SLP of T1-DR, which tended towards normalcy within the 64-h treatment period. Calculated AI of the experimental rats was within the range of 5.35 ± 0.51 – 0.50 ± 0.08. Conclusion: Short-term administration of T. cocoa bean extract caused substantial reduction in blood glucose concentration but did not obliterate hyperglycemia. Additionally, T. cocoa bean extract, in the present form and doses, exhibited comparative limited capacities to reduce oxidative stress and ameliorate dyslipidemia in T1-DR.

Key words: Diabetes mellitus, glutathione, hyperglycemia, malondialdehyde, serum lipid profile


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