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Typical findings of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with coronary artery diseases in South India: a retrospective analysis

Javeed Ahmad Tantray, Pratap K Reddy, Kaiser Jamil, Shiva Kumar Yerra.

Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of morbidity and death not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. The associated risk factors which have been linked to CVD include diabetes, hypertension, and the like and non-modifiable risk factors such as age, sex, and family history. However, one cannot fully explain why some individuals are prone to CAD and others are not. Indians, like the Americans, Europeans, and Japanese also have the highest rate of heart disease, but are associated with high mortality.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze various demographic and clinical characteristics retrospectively to investigate any unreported parameters.

Materials and Methods: It has been examined and statistically analyzed the records of 530 patients with coronary heart disease on angiography and who underwent cardiac evaluation at Mahavir Hospital and Research Centre, Hyderabad, Telangana, India between July 2012 and March 2014. Also, a few routine parameters like TC, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and conventional risk factors, serum electrolytes, blood grouping, pattern, and severity of the disease were included.

Result: Among 530 patients 70% were males, 30% were females. Smokers were 320 patients, and very few (10%) were alcoholics. 30.18% patients suffered from hypertension, 40.56% had diabetes mellitus, 47.16% had dyslipidemia, and about 15–20% had family history. The levels of TC, LDL-C and triglycerides were higher in males than females as compared to HDL-C. Angiographic analysis showed 20% patients had single vessel disease (SVD), 24.5% patients had double vessel disease (DVD), and 40.56% had triple vessel disease (TVD). Further 4.33% had left main disease and 10% had normal coronary angiogram. The mean values for serum creatinine, serum potassium, and serum sodium were highly associated (p=0.001).

Conclusion: The present study recorded major abnormalities in mean lipid levels as elevated TC and LDL-C levels and low HDL-C in CAD patients. The male preponderance indicted smoking as the major risk factor, while associated complications like diabetes and hypertension were significantly more common. Double and triple vessels disease was most common in this study. One interesting observation was that CVD patients with B blood group were more in numbers in this study followed by O group, then A and very few with AB group. Further most of them were non-alcoholic. These results reinforces in the control of biochemical parameters, improvement of quality of life, in the prevention and management of CAD.

Key words: Coronary artery disease (CAD), Epidemiology, Angiography, Cholesterol, Electrolytes


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