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Maternal and fetal outcomes in HIV positive pregnant female

Mahim Mittal, Ashutosh Kumar Mall, Yash Gopal Sharma.

Background: Vertical Transmission is still not an uncommon mode of HIV transmission. HIV and its treatment can also affect maternal and fetal outcomes. We aimed to study incidence and factors of MTCT and maternal and fetal outcomes with the current standard of care.
Methods: It was an observational study, at BRD medical college Gorakhpur. Pregnant, HIV positive females consenting for the study were enrolled. Follow up was up to 6 months post-delivery. Infant testing for transmission was done at 6 months.
Results: A total 35 HIV positive pregnant female were studied. Follow up could be completed in only 29 patients. Four (13.79%) infants had HIV DNA detectable in whole blood at 6 months. Transmission was 16.6% in group taking ART for 3 months, 25% in mixed feeding group vs. 12% in exclusive breast feeding and 16.6% in NVD group vs. 9% in LSCS. Incidence of Preterm delivery was higher in group who took ART for longer duration. IUGR was present in 10/29 (27%) and growth failure in 12/29 (41%) infants.
Conclusions: Longer ART duration and cesarean section delivery were more effective in preventing MTCT. Even exclusive breast feeding could result in MTCT. HIV exposure in utero may lead to IUGR. ART has no deleterious or positive effect on fetal growth but may be associated with preterm delivery. Better patient education will probably lead to earlier diagnosis and initiation of therapy to prevent transmission, and also to better fetal and infant outcomes.


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