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Study of incidence in between benign and malignant tumors of solitary thyroid nodule

B. Hemashankara Rao, K. Srinivasa Chakravarthy.

Abstract
Background: Accurate imaging characterization of a solitary thyroid nodule has been clearly problematic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the differentiation between malignant and benign solitary thyroid nodules. Objective of the study was to study the clinco-pathological correlation of solitary thyroid nodule and the incidence of malignancy.
Methods: The study was conducted in MIMS (Maharagah’s Institute of Medical Sciences). The study population was enrolled after fulfilling the selection criteria from OPD (Out Patient Department) of General Surgery. A total of 50 cases were studied who presented with complaint of thyroid swelling which was clinically confirmed as solitary thyroid nodule. Importance was given to detailed history; duration of swelling, pressure symptoms, and symptoms associated illnesses, previous exposure to neck irradiation, history of anti-thyroid drug use, positive family history. A detailed local examination was done in all cases followed by systemic examination.
Results: Out of 50 cases 10 cases were found to have malignant lesions with remaining 40 cases being benign lesions. The malignant nodules were significantly lower than those of benign ones (P = 0.0001). There were no significant differences between the mean ADC values of various malignant thyroid nodules, but there were significant differences between the subtypes of benign thyroid nodules (P = 0.0001).
Conclusions: The ADC value is a new promising non-invasive approach used for differentiating malignant from benign solitary thyroid nodules. The incidence of malignancy in solitary thyroid nodule is quite high. This warrants education to people to consult physicians for early diagnosis and adequate treatment without being passive as most of these swellings are asymptomatic for long duration.

Key words: Benign tumors, Malignant, Solitary thyroid nodule


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