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Incidence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among patients and hospital staff and impact of preventive measures in reduction of MRSA infection rate: a prospective observational study

Gita Nadimpalli, Sunil Bhamare, Rao N. P., Shahu Ingole.

Abstract
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with difficult to treat infections and high levels of morbidity. It is importance to assess the effectiveness of surveillance screening programs in prevention of MRSA infection. The objective of the study was to assess the type, pattern and antimicrobial sensitivity of MRSA infection and analyse the effectiveness of preventive measures in reduction of MRSA infection rate from 2014 to 2015.
Methods: 1044 and 996 samples with positive cultures obtained from patients admitted in 2014 and 2015 respectively were screened for MRSA using chrome agar test. Only MRSA positive cultures were included in the study and their sensitivity to antibiotics was tested. Screening of MRSA infection was conducted in patients as well as staff of Rao Nursing home, Pune for early identification of MRSA infection and prevention of transmission. MRSA infection rates in 2014 and 2015 were compared.
Results: Community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) was more common when compared to Hospital acquired pneumonia (HA-MRSA). HA-MRSA was more common in patients admitted in isolation units. There was a decrease in number of MRSA positive cultures from 2014 (4.8%) to 2015 (1.3%), proving the effectiveness of screening for MRSA infection amongst patients as well as healthcare workers. Higher hand hygiene rates were observed in 2015 (95.83%), which further contributed to the decrease in incidence of MRSA infection in 2015.
Conclusions: Strict adherence to preventive measures of MRSA such as hand hygiene, monitoring and adherence to the bundles for prevention with judicious use of antibiotics can greatly reduce the incidence of MRSA infection.

Key words: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Preventive measures, Hand hygiene, Antimicrobial sensitivity


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