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Prevalence and determinants of osteoporosis in women aged 40-60 years

Priya A. Vaasanthi, Sreekumary Radha, Bindu Nambisan.

Abstract
Background: Osteoporosis is a global problem which is affecting both the developed and the developing countries and also affecting men and women alike. In our community, it has been affecting adult women at a considerably earlier age than the western counterparts. Increasing life expectancy and a consequent increase in the elderly population has posed a new challenge to their health needs. Fractures related to osteoporosis are quite common. It is also an established fact that bone density measurements correlate well to the risk of developing fracture. This can be measured using DEXA (Dual energy X Ray Absorptiometry) and Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). It is estimated that 1 out of 8 males and 1 out of 3 females suffer from this, making India one of the highest affected counties in the world.
Methods: This was a cross sectional study done over a period of 12 months at this tertiary care centre in Trivandrum, Kerala. A sample size was calculated statistically and 400 women in this age group were included in this study. A structured proforma and QUS were the study tools. The bone mineral density of the calcaneum on the right foot was measured. The t-score values were obtained using quantitative ultrasound and individuals with the score values less than -2.5 were categorized as osteoporotic.
Results: In this hospital, prevalence of osteoporosis is 17.25 % and findings suggest a significant positive correlation between age, time since menopause, sunlight exposure, family history of osteoporosis and Bone mineral density.
Conclusions: Quantitative ultrasound conclusively confirms or rules out osteoporosis or osteopenia in any population and can be used as a screening tool.

Key words: DEXA, Osteoporosis, QUS


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