IJHSR. 2016; 6(12): 15-20
A Cross-Sectional Study on Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Acute Respiratory Infections in Children Below 5 Years Attending the Paediatric OP of Gandhi Hospital, Musheerabad, Telangana. B. Kiranmai, Asma, Prashamsa, Gopikrishna, Deekshith, Geeta Mohini, Rohith, Sravani.
Introduction: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of death among children of less than 5 years age in India. It is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and is the main reason for utilization of health services among children. Although most of the attacks are mild and self-limiting episodes, ARI is responsible for about 30-50 % visits to health facilities and for about 20- 40 % admissions to hospital. In the developing countries, seven out of 10 deaths happen due to ARI in under 5-year age group. In India, about 26.3 million cases of ARI were reported in 2011, with an incidence rate of about 2,173 cases per lakh population. Identification and intervention of major risk factors can reduce the burden of ARI among children. About 90% of ARI deaths are due to pneumonia, which is usually bacterial in origin.
Objective: The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of ARI in patients attending Pediatric OPD and to enumerate risk factors and find relationship between risk factors and ARI.
Material and methods A cross sectional study was conducted during January to April 2015 in the pediatric out - patient block of Gandhi hospital. A convenient sample of 250 children, who are less than 5 years of age, was taken. Pre designed, Semi structured questionnaire was used.
Results: The prevalence of ARI was found to be around 75.2%. Among them 30.8% were below 1 year of age and the around 69.2% were 1-5 years of age. Overcrowding, no history of immunization against Measles, absence of cross ventilation, passive smoking were found to be statistically significantly associated as risk factors for Acute respiratory Infections among children < 5 years of age.
Conclusions: Overcrowding, lack of immunization, absence of breast-feeding in the first six months of life, were observed to be important risk factors for development of ARI.
Acute respiratory infections, Overcrowding, Gandhi Hospital.