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Original Research

IJHSR. 2016; 6(12): 65-73

Phenotypic Characterization of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) - Producing Clinical Isolates of Escherichia Coli And Klebsiella Spp from Mile Four General Hospital, Abakaliki.

Iroha I. R., Igwe O. F., Moses I. B., Iroha C. S., Nwakaeze E. A., Ejikeugwu P. C. Ajah M. I., Nwuzo A. C., Afiukwa F. N., Eluu S. C..

The objective of this study was to phenotypically characterize extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates obtained from Mile Four General Hospital, Abakaliki. One hundred and three (103) clinical Gram-negative bacteria isolates were obtained from 657 clinical samples (urine, sputum, pus, cerebrospinal fluid, ear swab, high vagina swab, stool, wound swab and semen). Twenty of the clinical isolates were identified as Escherichia coli while 83 were Klebsiellas pp based on cultural, morphological and biochemical techniques. The phenotypic screening of the 103 bacterial isolates for ESBL production was done by disc diffusion method using second and third generation cephalosporins. The resistant strains were further tested for ESBL production using ceftazidime, cefotaxine and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, a method called double disc diffusion. Susceptibility of the ESBL-producing bacterial isolates to antibiotics was done on Muller-Hinton agar by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods using the following antibiotics; sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, nitrofurantion, Nalidixic acid, tobramycin, ofloxacin, cefoxitin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. ESBL production was observed in 8 (7.76 %) E. coli and 13 (12.6 %) Klebsiella spp. isolates. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole and nitrofurantion with a resistance frequency ranging from 60 % to 82 % while gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against the bacterial isolates as they were 100 % susceptible to this antibiotic. This was closely followed by ertapenem (85 %) and ciprofloxacin (82 %). ESBL production is still one of the major mechanisms of drug resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in hospitals. Hence, there is need for more prevalence/surveillance studies to curtail its spread.

Key words: Extended Spectrum beta-lactamases, bacterial isolates, clinical samples, Mile four, E. coli and Klebsiella spp.

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