Background: Genomics is the study of the complete genetic material of an organism. Personalized medicine is a type of medicine that uses data and information about an individual’s genes to prevent, diagnose, and treat a disease. The main goal of this paper was to review the applications and roles of genomics in personalized medicine.
Materials and Methods: A literature search was conducted on Pub Med and Google scholar electronic databases.
Results: One of the most important areas that involve the application of genomics is pharmacogenomics, which is the leading technology for personalized medicine. Genomics plays significant roles in personalized medicine by making genomic data and information available, which eventually guides decision-making to choose the most appropriate and most effective treatments, thereby reducing drug adverse reactions. Genomics also plays a vital role in personalized medicine by reducing risk associated with multiple medications (polypharmacy).
Conclusion: Genomics makes personalized medicine a reality. Personalized medicine is dependent on scientific advances in understanding of how an individual’s unique genetic and molecular profile place one at risk of some kind of diseases. More importantly, scientific discoveries increase our ability to predict which medications will be effective and safe for individual patients, and which medications will not be.
genomics; personalized medicine; pharmacogenomics; pharmacogenetics; precision medicine.