Cough is one of the most common symptoms that doctor faces in working with pediatric population, and according to some characteristics of cough, doctors can often conclude localization, and sometimes even the nature of the disease that causes it. Cough is not only the physiological defense reaction, but a symptom of a disease. According to duration it can be acute, chronic and recidivist, recurrent and persistent, strong or discreet, caused by changes in body position and changes in outside temperature. Pathoanatomically it is divided into lobar, lobular, alveolar and interstitial, pathogenetically to bronchogenic and hematogenous, as well as in immuno competent and immunocompromised, and clinically on the local and inpatient (72 hours after hospital admission). Considering the contents, cough can be productive and –with secretion from the respiratory tract, and unproductive-dry, without secretion. By auscultation bronchial breathing, rattle and crepitus can be heard. The primary diagnostics is radiological, posterior to anterior (P-A) and lateral footage of the chest. Laboratory findings in typical pneumonia, are characterized by leukocytosis, neutrophilia and shift of blood image to the left. Sedimentation is accelerated and C-reactive protein is elevated. The basic bacteriological diagnosis is sputum Grams stain and culture of sputum. In atypical pneumonia, leukocytes are usually in the normal range, and it is necessary to do serological tests (IgM and IgG antibodies). The role of doctors in primary health care is auscultation differentiation of murmurs with confirmation of doubt if there is pathological findings by laboratory tests and treatment, depending on the type of cough. Treatment is essentially pharmacological, with irrefutable importance of non-pharmacological measures.
cough;pediatric population;primary health care system