Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases that affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as already there has been no vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria; there are currently 63 vaccine candidates, 41 in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Vaccines are being designed to target pre-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stage or the sexual stages of Plasmodium taken up by a feeding mosquito, or the multiple stages. Two vaccines in preclinical and clinical development target P. falciparum; and the most advanced candidate is the pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S which is in phase-III clinical trials. It is likely that world's first malaria vaccine will be available by 2015 at the country level. More efficacious second generation malaria vaccines are on the way to development. Safety, efficacy, cost and provision of the vaccine to all communities are major concerns in malaria vaccine issue.
Malaria-vaccine, pre-erythrocytic (PE), blood-stage (BS), circumsporozoite protein (CSP), merozoite surface protein (MSP)