Association of biomarkers for inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress with cognitive impairment: the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss StudyChidi N. Obasi, Karen J. Cruickshanks, David M. Nondahl, Barbara E. K. Klein, Ronald Klein, F. Javier Nieto, Anoop Shankar, Mary E. Fischer, Michael Y. Tsai, Rick Chappell.
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Individual biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been associated with cognitive impairment. This study explored whether a combination of biomarkers could prospectively identify those who developed cognitive decline. Biomarkers were obtained during the baseline examination of the Beaver Dam Eye Study (1988-90), and cognitive status was assessed during the 5-year follow-up examination of the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (1998-2000). Cognitive impairment was defined as a score of < 24 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination or self- or proxy report of Alzheimer Disease or dementia. Among those with cognitive data, interleukin-6, isoprostanes, protein carbonyl, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were available for 950 participants and 2,336 had high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were not associated with cognitive impairment. There was a weak inverse association between higher levels of protein carbonyl content and cognitive impairment (OR, 0.8 per quartile of protein carbonyl content, P = 0.045 unadjusted for multiple comparisons). This was not significant on multiple testing and may have been a chance finding. We found that many markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were not associated with cognitive impairment. An inverse association with carbonyl protein, a marker of oxidative stress needs further confirmation.
Biomarkers; Cognitive impairment; Inflammation; Oxidative stress