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Rawal Medical Journal
Periodical of Pakistan Medical Association Rawalpindi Islamabad Branch
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ISSN: 0303-5212 (Print)
Language: [ English ]  
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  » Volume 39, Issue 1
      pp. 1-112

 

Open Access

Original Research

RMJ. 2010; 35(2): 245-248


Evaluation of frequency of abnormal Urine R.E tests in Pathology Laboratory

Shahina Yasmin.

A B S T R A C T 

Abstract
ABSTRACT
Objective
To evaluate the frequency of abnormal urine routine examination (RE) in order to justify the clinician's frequent requests and use of test either as diagnostic aid to confirm provisional clinical diagnosis or a tool for accidental diagnosis.
Material and Methods
A total of 2000 urine samples received from 1st Sept 2008 to 10th May 2009 were processed in Raazi Diagnostics Pathology Laboratory, Rawalpindi. They were examined for proteins, glucose and blood using Combur-10 urine test strips (Roche) and leucocytes using light microscope. The tests with one or more above mentioned abnormal findings were labeled as Positive.
Results
Out of 2000 samples, 39.8% showed positive results. Pyuria was seen in 25.8%, glycosuria in 7.8%, proteinuria in 7.1% and hematuria in18.35% cases. Tests with positive physicochemical findings were 26.2% and tests with both leucocytes and positive physicochemical findings were 12.25%. 23.7% samples were from male patients, out of which 34% were positive. 76.3% samples were from females, out of which 41.6% were positive. Pyuria was found more in females (29.9%) while hematuria was higher in males (20.9%). 942 (47.1%) samples were received in the morning, 707 (35.4%) in the evening and 351(17.5%) during the night. Pyuria (30.4%) was detected more in evening and proteinuria (18.8%) more in night shifts. The frequency of positive samples increased with age, more so in physico-chemical than microscopic aspect. The price of urine R.E in private sector laboratory is Rs 50-150/test. The cost of 2000 tests is estimated at Rs 100000-300000, out of which Rs 40,000-120,000 were for positive tests and Rs 60,000-180,000 for negative tests.
Conclusions
The detection of abnormal findings in urine was 39.8% Urine RE test indicates fairly satisfactory diagnostic yield. Pyuria was the commonest abnormality seen especially in females. The research and better strategies are needed to improve diagnostic yield in children. The guidance of patients and health care professionals to improve current practices of sample collection and examination can yield more positive results. The clinician should order lab investigations after conscientious justifications. (Rawal Med J 2010;35:257-261).
Key words
Urine RE, urinalysis, pyuria, hematuria.
INTRODUCTION
Routine examination of urine is one of the most commonly ordered investigations. The Physico-chemical properties generally examined in Pathology laboratories include specific gravity, pH, color, odor, proteins, glucose, ketones, blood, Bilirubin and other abnormal constituents. Microscopic examination is done for detection of RBCs, leucocytes (pus cells), epithelial cells, bacteria, crystals and casts. A 10 ml sample is sufficient for conducting these tests.1 For a reliable report, careful collection of mid stream urine sample in sterile container and an early examination is important. Urine being a good culture medium requires preservative measures in case of delay in examination.1 About 2 hour postprandial samples are likely to contain protein and glucose. Proteinuria can occur after exercise, in highly concentrated urine, fever, severe emotional or thermal stress in healthy persons. 1 Contamination by urethral and vaginal discharges, fecal flora, chemicals and other substances, inadequate mixing and wrong/inadequate preservative are the sources of error in reporting the test.2 All abnormal tests may not be clinically significant because they can result from many non pathologic causes. In addition, the false positive and false negative results are common.3 The false results can be limited if certain precautions are followed 4. Urine RE helps in diagnosis of symptomatic and screening of asymptomatic disorders like urinary tract infections, assessment of kidney functions, metabolic disorders, jaundice, hemorrhagic conditions, presence of stones, trauma and malignancy etc.5 The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of abnormal findings in urine routine examination.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was carried out in Raazi Diagnostics Pathology Laboratory, a subsidiary of Raazi Hospital Rawalpindi. A total of two thousand urine samples were collected in sterile disposable plastic containers, over a period of seven and a half months from 1st September 2008 to 10th May 2009. The study included all samples received irrespective of age, gender or provisional diagnosis, during all three working shifts. They were examined for proteins, glucose and blood using Combur-10 urine test strips (Roche) and leucocytes using light microscope. All the tests with one or more above mentioned abnormal findings were labeled as positive. The results were recorded on Access data base and analyzed.
RESULTS
Out of total of 2000 samples, 1204 (60.2%) tests had normal findings (Negative tests). Total positive tests were 796 (39.8%). Tests with both leucocytes and physicochemical positive findings were 245 (12.25%).








Table1. Frequency of abnormal urine tests within gender and age groups.
Age (yrs) Gender Num-ber Glucose Protein Blood Leucocytes Positive
01 -10 Male 116 0 4(3.4%) 10(8.6%) 12(10.3%) 61
Female 127 0 8(6.3%) 20(15.7%) 32(25.2%) (25.1%)
Total 243 0 12(4.9%) 30(12.3%) 44(18.1%)
11 -20 Male 69 0 6(8.7%) 9(13%) 6(8.7%) 77
Female 166 6 (3.6%) 15(9%) 23(13.9%) 36(21.7%) (22.8%)
Total 235 6 (2.6%) 21(8.9%) 32(13.6%) 42(17.9%)
21 – 30 Male 89 4 (4.5%) 10(11.2%) 20(22.5%) 10(11.2%) 315
Female 718 32 (4.5%) 24(3.3%) 103(14.3%) 221(30.8%) (39%)
Total 807 36 (4.5%) 34(4.2%) 123(15.2%) 231(28.6%)
31 -40 Male 54 7 (13%) 1(1.9%) 15(27.8%) 9(16.7%) 120
Female 244 20 (8.2%) 15(6.1%) 53(21.7%) 64(26.2%) (40.3%)
Total 298 27 (9%) 16(5.4%) 68(22.8%) 73(24.5%)
41 – 50 Male 52 13(25%) 7(13.5%) 14(26.9%) 7(13.5%) 88
Female 130 14(11%) 11(8.5%) 38(29.2%) 42(32.3%) (48.4%)
Total 182 27(15%) 18(9.9%) 52(28.6%) 49(26.9%)
51 – 60 Male 49 16(32.6%) 11(22.4%) 17(34.7%) 13(26.5%) 80
Female 83 23(27.7%) 11(13.3%) 23(27.7%) 28(33.7%) (60.6%)
Total 132 29(29.5%) 22(16.7%) 40(29.9%) 41(31%)
> 60 Male 45 10(22.2%) 9(20%) 14(31.1%) 13(28.9%) 55
Female 58 10(17.2%) 11(9%) 9(15.5%) 23(37.7%) (53.4%)
Total 103 20(19.4%) 20(19.4%) 23(22.3%) 36(35%)

















Tests with positive Physicochemical aspects were 525 (26.2%). Pyuria was seen in 516 (25.8%), glycosuria in 155 (7.8%), proteinuria in 143 (7.1%) and hematuria in 367 (18.35%) cases (Table 1). The samples received in morning were 942 (47.1%), in evening 707 (35.4%) and in night 351(17.5%). The comparison of frequency of abnormal urine tests in all three working shifts is shown in Fig. 1.



Fig 1. Frequency of abnormal urine tests in working shifts.

Pyuria was detected more in evening (30.4%) and proteinuria more in night shift (18.8%). Out of 474 (23.7%) samples from males, 161 (34%) tests were positive. Out of 1526 (76.3%) samples from females, 635 (41.6%) tests were positive.
Fig 2. Comparison of abnormal urine tests in gender groups.

Pyuria was found more in females (29.9%) while hematuria was higher in males (20.9%) (Fig. 2). The price of urine RE in private sector laboratory is Rs 50-150 / Test. 2000 tests cost Rs 100000-300000, out of which Rs 40,000-120,000 for positive tests and Rs 60,000-180,000 for negative tests.
DISCUSSION
The percentage of positive urine RE tests was found to be fairly acceptable when compared with the efforts exerted by both patient and laboratory staff. By careful inquiry, physician can interpret false positive tests which may further decrease the number of positive tests. In most cases, the commonly found abnormalities on urine screening tests are transient or due to false positive readings.6 Furthermore, judicious discrimination of false positive and false negative test remains a challenge for the physician.
The results of abnormal findings in all categories were much higher in this study as compared to an earlier study from Rural Health Centers Abbotabad.7 This may account for better diagnostic environment or more disease incidence in urban areas. Except for proteinuria, the results were also higher as 10.6%, 4.7%, 11.7% and 11% respectively when compared with a study from Saudi Arabia.8 The percentage of abnormal findings increased with age, more so in physicochemical than microscopic aspect. The old age group with minimum number of patients had maximum positive percentage. The lowest percentage of positive tests in children needs evaluation of factors responsible and measures to rectify them. One of the causes may be difficulty in obtaining adequate sample in children. In a study using urine analysis test sticks (for nitrite and leucocyte estrase), prevalence of pyuria was found to be 21.8% as pressing these sticks on the panty liners soaked with urine can achieve consistent results compared with sample in container. 9
Hematuria and proteinuria in 11-21 yrs group was much higher when compared with 0.55%10 and 4.7%10 in a Nigerian study and 4.2% and 2.3% of a local study.7 Morning shift received maximum number of samples but contrary to expectations it had minimum positive results. The positive test percentage in all working shifts was almost uniform. This may be due to similar modes of sample collection being practiced throughout the day. Health education programs should include guidance for patients and refresher courses for health care professionals to provide true representative sample. A brief instructions slip provided to the patient along with urine container for sample collection may improve the outcome. Maximum number of samples (76%) were obtained from females patients with comparatively more positive results than males. This could be due to test requests for antenatal protocol. Pyuria (29.9%) was higher in females compared to 16.5%7 in Ruhila′s study. The other abnormal features were more in males while they were similar in above study. 7
It is thought that mass urine screening is of benefit in number of Asian countries,11,12 although it is not clear whether it is cost effective or not. In United States mass screening of asymptomatic individuals has not been shown to be cost effective.1 Better strategies should be adopted to minimize unnecessary tests cost, for example, by use of multi-test dipsticks for initial screening by a competent nurse at bedside or outdoor department. The research is also needed to obtain clinician’s point of view and justifications for frequent demand of routine and other special tests from patients. Key factors responsible for fruitful outcome of laboratory investigations include due consideration to various factors at the time of sampling and testing, physiological states, environmental conditions, oral intake, and judicious interpretation of results. The question, whether the laboratory tests are being used more as an expensive screening tool for accidental diagnosis or as an aid to confirm provisional clinical diagnosis, still needs conscientious answer by clinician.
CONCLUSIONS
The detection of abnormal findings in this study was 39.8% Urine RE tests indicated fairly high diagnostic yield. Pyuria was the commonest abnormality, especially in females. The research and better strategies are needed to improve diagnostic yield in children. The guidance of patients and health care professionals to improve current practices of sample collection and examination can yield more positive results. Finally the clinicians should order laboratory investigations after conscientious justifications.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I extend my gratitude to Maj. Gen (R) Masood Anwar for motivating and Mr Khursheed Awan for encouraging me to write this article. I am thankful to Mr Hamid Aziz for his support in performing the tests and recording data.
Correspondence: Dr Shahina Yasmin
Assistant Prof. Pathology,
Islamic International Medical College
7th Avenue G-7/4 Islamabad.
Tel: 051-2891835. E-mail: Shahina yasmin@riphah.edu.pk
Received: May 7, 2010 Accepted: July 17, 2010

REFERENCES
1. Urine Examinations. A. H. Nagi Clinical Pathology Interpretations Second Edition. National Book Foundation Lahore Pakistan 2004. pp 149-153.
2. Urine Examination. Manual of Laboratory Medicine 3rd edition, 2005, pp77
3. Patel HP. The abnormal urinalysis. Pediatr Clin N Am 2006;53:325-37.
4. Friedman AL. Urinalysis: oft ignored. Contemp Pediatr 1991;8:31-51
5. Examination of urine. Monica Cheesebrough in District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Part 2. 2000, pp.106-111
6. Kaplan RE, Springate JE, Feld LG. Screening dipstick analysis: a time to change. Pediatrics 1997;100:919-21
7. Hanif R, Ally SH, Jalal-ud-din, Khan K. Effectiveness of routine urine analysis of patient attending rural health centres in abbotabad. J Ayub Med Coll Abottabad 2006;18:63-4.
8. Al-Homrani M, Mirdad S, Al-Harbi N, Mahfouz A, Al-Amari O, Abdallah S. Utility of Urinalysis in patients attending primary health centres. Saudi J Kid Dis Transplant 1997;8:419-22.
9. Edwards A, Vander Voort J, Newcombe R, Thayer H, Verrier JK. A urine analysis method suitable for children’s nappies. J Clini Pathol 1997;50:569-72.
10. Ovaisu E, Ovaisu SV. Urinary abnormalities in asymptomatic adolescent Nigerian. West Afr Med 1994;13:2106-8.
11. Murakami M, Hakawa M, Yanaghihara T, Hukunaga K. Proteinuria screening for children. Kidney Int 2005:94:23-7.
12. Cho BS, Kim SD, Coi YM, Kang HH. School urinalysis screening in Korea: prevalence of chronic renal disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2001;16:1126-8.














Key words: Urine RE, urinalysis, pyuria, hematuria.


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Yasmin S. Evaluation of frequency of abnormal Urine R.E tests in Pathology Laboratory. RMJ. 2010; 35(2): 245-248.



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Yasmin S. Evaluation of frequency of abnormal Urine R.E tests in Pathology Laboratory. www.scopemed.org/?mno=3814 [Access: April 20, 2014].



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Yasmin S. Evaluation of frequency of abnormal Urine R.E tests in Pathology Laboratory. RMJ. 2010; 35(2): 245-248.



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Yasmin S. Evaluation of frequency of abnormal Urine R.E tests in Pathology Laboratory. RMJ. (2010), [cited April 20, 2014]; 35(2): 245-248.



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Yasmin, S. (2010) Evaluation of frequency of abnormal Urine R.E tests in Pathology Laboratory. RMJ, 35 (2), 245-248.



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Yasmin, Shahina. 2010. Evaluation of frequency of abnormal Urine R.E tests in Pathology Laboratory. Rawal Medical Journal, 35 (2), 245-248.



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Yasmin, Shahina. " Evaluation of frequency of abnormal Urine R.E tests in Pathology Laboratory." Rawal Medical Journal 35 (2010), 245-248.



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Yasmin, Shahina. " Evaluation of frequency of abnormal Urine R.E tests in Pathology Laboratory." Rawal Medical Journal 35.2 (2010), 245-248. Print.



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Yasmin, S. (2010) Evaluation of frequency of abnormal Urine R.E tests in Pathology Laboratory. Rawal Medical Journal, 35 (2), 245-248.







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