ScopeMed - RSShttp://www.scopemed.orgScopeMed RSSen-us Copyright © 2011 ScopeMed All rights reserved. ScopeMedhttp://www.scopemed.org/img/logo-scopemed-ttk.gifhttp://www.scopemed.org 2016-05-06T04-12-54Z Gold in the male reproductive tract of rat: A chronobiological study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=215322 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences
Kalanghot Padmanabhan Skandhan, James Valsa, Balakrishnan Sumangala, Vasudevan Jaya.
In a 24 hour study, 10 adult male albino rats (total=60) were sacrificed at every four hour starting from 00:00 hours. Reproductive tissues – testis, epididymis (caput, corpus, cauda), vas deference, seminal vesicle, prostate (ventral, dorso ventral) and coagulating glands were dissected out and the level of gold was measured in each tissue by employing atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Level of gold differed showing peaks and nadirs at different timings, like dorso ventral prostate gland showed the highest amount (3.31µg per gram tissue) at 08:00 hrs and the lowest (0.03 µg per gram) at 00:00 hrs. Fluctuation observed in the level of gold is discussed in terms of chronobiology.
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Fri, 06 May 2016 02:41:15 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=215322
Metacognition in patients with alopecia areata /Alopesia areatalı hastalarda metakognisyonun değerlendirilmesi http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=219729 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Journal of Turgut Ozal Medical Center
Esra Soydaş Akyol, Selda Işık, Hülya Ertekin, Başak Şahin, Sevilay Oguz, Sibel Cevizci.
Abstract Aim: Though genetic and environmental factors predominate, the pathogenesis of alopecia areata (AA) is not fully known and is associated with emotional stress. A secondary psychiatric disease in psychodermatological disease classification, AA is commonly encountered with depression and anxiety disorder. When the association of alopecia areata with psychiatric diseases is considered, metacognition may play an effective role in its etiology. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 patients diagnosed with alopecia areata and 50 healthy volunteers. Both groups completed the Sociodemographic Data Form and the Metacognition Questionnaire, while the AA group completed the Structured Clinical Interview For DSM-IV (SCID-I). Both groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, clinical characteristics and metacognition characteristics. Results: Apart from familial AA and presence of psychiatric diseases, there was no significant difference between the groups. These were significantly high in the AA diagnosis group. The need to control thoughts was significantly high in the AA group compared to the HV group (p=0.022). When involvement percentage is compared in AA patients, there were significant differences between the groups for uncontrollability and danger, need to control thoughts and cognitive self-consciousness (p=0.01; P=0.002, p=0.009). When AA patients were compared in terms of remission, cognitive self-consciousness was significantly higher in the group without remission (p=0.018). Conclusion: Many aspects of AA, a psychosomatic disease, have not been researched from a psychiatric viewpoint. Our study is a preliminary study on metacognition; research concerning the association of metacognition with other psychiatric diseases (OCD, GAD) will provide better understanding of AA.
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Fri, 06 May 2016 01:59:07 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=219729
Sıcak Hava Dalgaları ve Korunma http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227931 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Ömer Faruk Tekbaş.

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Thu, 05 May 2016 14:21:33 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227931
İçme ve Kullanma Sularının Kullanımında Dikkat Edilecek Hususlar http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227928 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin
Ömer Faruk Tekbaş, Recai Oğur.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 14:05:53 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227928
EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSIOBALL EXERCISES ON GLUCOSE LEVEL, CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS and QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=217777 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Therapies and Rehabilitation Research
Arjun Bashyal, siddhartha sen, Najeeb Islam.
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality.285 million people worldwide and that number is expected to reach 438 million by the year 2030, with two-thirds of all diabetes cases occurring in low- to middle-income countries. Objective: The propose of the present study is to find out the effects of exercise regime of 1 month over fasting glucose level response, cardiovascular fitness and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methodology: 28 subjects with age group of 40-65 years with NIDDM were randomly assigned into two groups’ (14 each) viz. experimental group (52.35 ± 9.77) and control group (54.5 ± 7.13). All the subjects in experimental group were undergone physioball exercises and subjects in the control group were received theraband exercises. The physioball exercises was applied as intervention in 3 days per week for four weeks and the fasting glucose level, VO2 max and SF-36 were used as an outcome measures in starting day (0 day)and fourth week( 28 day). Results: Fasting blood glucose level (BG), VO2 max and SF-36 data were significant (p=0.001). Conclusion: It is concluded that balance exercise with physioball, significantly decreases fasting blood glucose, cardiovascular fitness and quality of life, but when compared with theraband exercises it produces equal effectiveness in type 2 diabetic populations
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Thu, 05 May 2016 10:53:17 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=217777
Multiple Choroid Plexus Cysts: a case report http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=223792 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Ahter Tanay Tayyar, Mehmet Tayyar.
The incidence of choroid plexus cyst (CPC), in trisomy 18 45-50 %, in trisomy 21 1-2%. For this reason, the effect of bilaterality, size, and multiplicity of CPC on the aneuploidy risk is controversial. İn this case report we discussed the effect of multiplicity of CPC on the aneuploidy risk. Generally accepted opinion is positive first and second trimester screening test or detection of another malformation with sonography is more important than laterality or multiplicity of CPC for karyotype analyzing. Prenatal karyotyping is needed when maternal serum screening markers are abnormal or another markers are found on sonogram. Thirty-year-old (gravida 3, parity 2) referred at 19 weeks gestation due to 6.4 mm, 6 mm, 4 mm unilateral, multiple CPC formation. In second trimester sonography, there was no another abnormal ultrasound abnormality detected. Maternal serum second trimester and quadruple test results were normal. Amniocentesis was not applied to the patient. At the term, the healthy baby was delivered.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 06:24:53 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=223792
Non Communicable Diseases in urban India: The challenges and opportunity for the physiotherapist http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=222365 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Therapies and Rehabilitation Research
Nalin Kumar, Bhupinder Singh.
Introduction and background The Global burden of Disease (GBD) study mentions how India has been a huge contributor to the GBD. India is facing challenges to strengthen basic public health infrastructure and health care delivery system. The health systems are unprepared to address the sudden manic due to the change in the disease distribution. NCDs act as a public health burden of both the rural and urban India. India was become the diabetic capital of the world with 50 million diabetics and an estimated 77 million pre-diabetics. There is high presence of associated risk factors for NCDs in the urban areas. Physiotherapist form an integral part of the health system and this study explores if the training of physiotherapist meets the essential requirements for NCDs prevention and control. The scope of their work can be increased by investigating the increase in NCDs and the lack of health care human resource in the country. Methodology The study involves a review of literature on NCDs prevention and control and the need of training of Physiotherapist. The methodology involves selection of university curriculum of both the private and government universities offering graduate physiotherapy education (BPT). The latest curriculum was assessed of 22 universities and colleges. A policy analysis of NCDs prevention and control was done for National Programme for Prevention & Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) along with Health Systems review. Findings The findings of the study are congruent with the earlier findings of O’Donoghue et al. (2014). The physiotherapy curriculum in INDIA does not meet the essential requirements to address the associated risk factors for NCDs. The policy analysis of NPCDS and Health Systems highlights the role of physiotherapist in India is considered as a health promotive and rehabilitative professional. A recommendation of World Health Professional Alliance (WHPA) and World Confederation of Physical Therapist (WCPT) mentions the important role of Physiotherapist in combating NCDs by prevention of the risk factors and the necessary role to combat NCDs. Interpretation There is a need for policy/program/curriculum adaptation required to provide physiotherapist with necessary skills required to address the NCDs.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 06:17:00 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=222365
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in ten hemodialysis patients: a single center experience http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=224685 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Irem Pembegul Yigit, Hulya Taskapan, Ali Gurel.
Tuberculosis (TB) infection is increasing all over the world especially among immunocompromised patients including end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Symptoms and signs are non-spesific and involvement is generally extra-pulmonary in ESRD patients. We presented ten ESRD patients with TB. Six of our cases presented with TB lymphadenitis, two with Pott’s disease, one with breast TB and one with lung TB and Wegener’s granulomatosis. The diagnosis of TB is based on the finding of an acid fast bacilli-positive smear, positive culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and typical histopathologic findings. Anti-TB therapy with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol combinations are generally successful. Non- spesific constitutional symptoms and unexplained deterioration of general health in ESRD patients should attract attention of clinicians about TB infections.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 06:03:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=224685
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ACORUS CALAMUS GEL FOR TOPICAL CANDIDITIS http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227871 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Stimson Jose, Aswathy.C, Sruthy.T, Anusree.S.S, Deepa Sreekanth.
Traditional medicines take part an important role in treatment in many developing as well as developed countries. It emphasis the usage of herbal medicines in patients as an alternative therapy or a complimentary therapy. Herbal medicines are widely used for the treatment of skin and skin related disorders. The objective of this study is to formulate and evaluate the antifungal herbal gel, from rhizome alcoholic extract of the plant Acorus calamus, which is traditionally been used medicinally and also to make fragrances. Pleasant/Odourless Slight yellow extract with good consistency was extracted and converted into phytosomes and then into gel. The physiochemical parameters and invitro antifungal activities of Acorus calamus gel as well as the combination of honey with Acorus calamus gel are evaluated and compared with the standard; Candid B ointment(Clotrimazole1%+Beclomethasonedipropionate 0.025%).Alcoholic extract showed the presence of amino acid, carbohydrates, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic compounds and tannins. The water soluble and acid insoluble ash values of Acorus calamus was found to be 1.7% and 2.2% respectively. The alcoholic extractive value of Acorus calamus was found to be 5% and the gel obtained was found to be easily spreadable and extrudable with pH: 6.8, ie nonirritant to skin. The zone of inhibition of Acorus calamus gel preparation found for Standard, sample A and B are 2.0 cm, 1.1cm, and 1.0cm respectively. From all of observation we can conclude that the formulation showed effective antifungal activity against Candida albicans and is quite comparable with the standard.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 05:31:24 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227871
EFFECT OF VITAMIN C ON HAEMATOBIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN SODIUM FLUORIDE (NAF) INTOXICATED CHANNA PUNCTATUS FISHES http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227869 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
K. R Shanmugam , A. Srinivas Reddy*.
The present study was carried out to know the impact of Vitamin C on haematobiochemical parameters in Channa punctatus (Bloch) in Sodium fluoride (NaF) induced toxicity fishes. For this purpose the fishes are divided in to 7 groups and treatment was given as per the experimental protocol. Vitamin C supplementation was given to NaF fishes for 30 days and serum was separated. Then haematobiochemical parameters are like Haemoglobin (Hb), Red blood cells (RBC), White blood cells (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) are estimated. Hb, RBC, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC levels are decreased in NaF intoxicated fishes, where as WBC levels increased. However, with vitamin C administration all these heemetological parameters came back to near to normal levels. The present study proves that protective effect of Vitamin C in sodium fluoride intoxicated fishes.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 05:12:10 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227869
A NEW VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF SIMEPREVIR AND SOFOSBUVIR IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227859 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
B. Raj Kumar*, Dr. K. V.Subrahmanyam.
Simeprevir is indicated in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 for the treatment of chronic hepatitis as a combination therapy, which includes peg interferon alfa and ribavirin. Simeprevir is a protease inhibitor for HCV NS3/4A protease, which is required for replication of the virus. Simeprevir functions as a direct-acting antiviral agent because it inhibits hepatitis C viral replication by binding to and inhibiting the protease, hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A. After oral administration, simeprevir reaches its maximum plasma concentrations in 4-6 hours. SOVALDI is the brand name for sofosbuvir, a nucleotide analog inhibitor of HCV NS5B polymerase. The IUPAC name for sofosbuvir is (S)-Isopropyl 2-((S)-(((2R, 3R, 4R, 5R)-5-(2, 4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-4-fluoro-3-hydroxy-4-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)-(phenoxy)phosphorylamino)propanoate. It has a molecular formula of C22H29FN3O9P and a molecular weight of 529.45. is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleotide analog NS5B polymerase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection as a component of a combination antiviral treatment regimen A novel reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the quantitative determination of Simeprevir and sobosuvir in active pharmaceutical ingredients and in its Pharmaceutical dosage form by using symmetry X-Terra C18 as stationary phase and a mobile phase containing a mixture of Acetonitrile: Water (75:25% v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and effluent was monitored at 253nm and a peak eluted at .090, 5.289 ±0.02min and column oven temperature was maintained ambient. Calibration curve was plotted with a range from 0-30 μg/ml. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the current International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for specificity, LOD, LOQ, linearity, accuracy, precision, intermediate precision and robustness. The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine analysis of Simeprevir & Sofosbuvir in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 03:10:12 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227859
QUANTITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES IN LEAF EXTRACTS OF MANGROVE GRASS MYRIOSTACHYA WIGHTIANA http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227858 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
M. Kiran Kumar, M. B. K. Priyanka, S. J. Mounika, Pola Sudhakar, B. V. Sandeep.
Myriostacya wightiana is a perennial mangrove grass belongs to Poaceae family, occurs in India, Bangladesh and extending to Myanmar, Malaysia and Vietnam. Due to more salinity in its habitat Myriostacya wightiana possess high antioxidant potential. The present study evaluates the phytochemicals, antioxidants and free radical scavenging activities of the Myriostacya wightiana leaf extracts. Specific extraction and estimation methods were used to quantify the phytochemicals and antioxidants. The results of in vitro studies were analysed with Mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) obtained from three independent experiments. Among the phytochemicals flavonoids were found in more concentration. i.e., 416±8.2mg/gm. highest enzymatic antioxidant activity was showed by catalase (32.7±1.555 U/mg protein) whereas lowest activity was showed by peroxidase. Carotenoids occupies the major proportion among the non enzymatic antioxidant i.e., 90.16±0 mg/g and ascorbate has least. Leaf extracts of Myriostacya wightiana shows highest percent of scavenging activity with superoxide radicals (80±6.4%). The present study revealed that Myriostacya wightiana had valuable phytochemicals, antioxidants such as enzymatic and non enzymatic which prevents oxidative damage. Because of these properties Myriostacya wightiana is referred as rich medicinal source.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 03:04:55 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227858
SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES ON Co(II) COMPLEXES OF N-SUBSTITUTED 2-CHLORO PHENOTHIAZINES. http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227854 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Madhushree N N, Chandrashekara P G*, Umesha S.
The transition metal complexes of Co (II) has been synthesized using 2-chloro phenothiazine derivatives as main ligand and purified by recrystallization in methanol. These have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, molar conductivity measurement, magnetic studies, TGA, UV and mass. These studies were revealed that an octahedral geometry of the type [M(L)(L1).3H2O] and [M(L)(L1).2H2O], Where M = Co(II), L is ligand, L1 is 1:10-phenathroline. All the metal complexes are mononuclear and have octahedral geometry. Synthesized metal complexes were screened for antimicrobial activities (antifungal and antibacterial) against three bacteria and three fungi using In vitro disc diffusion method. The result revealed that most of the synthesized complex compounds exhibited good antimicrobial activities.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 02:46:36 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227854
INTRAOPERATIVE AND POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS, ACCIDENTS AND FAILURES RELATED WITH DENTAL IMPLANT APPLICATIONS http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227846 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Damla Torul, Mehmet Cihan Bereket, Ismail Sener, Ali Ilker Bastan.
With revolutions in biotechnology, implant surgery has become a routine therapy in the last three decades for the rehabilitation of completely or partially edentulous patients. Despite implant surgery increasing popularity and high success rates of, complications due to implant therapy are still unavoidable. Complications can occur either intra-operative or post-operative period of the surgery. Intra-operative complications such as hematoma and ingestion or inhalation of mechanical components or instruments can be serious as life-threatening. Other complications that occur during implant placements are usually associated with local damages such as nerve injury, adjacent teeth damage and perforations of the nasal cavity or maxillary sinus. Also mandible fractures, sinusitis, peri-implant mucositis, peri-implantitis and periapical implant lesions are the complications that frequently encountered after surgery. Therefore implant therapy is a complicated procedure and the management of the complications associated with this therapy requires a special training and experience. This review categorized complications associated with dental implant applications and discusses management options of these complications.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:43:12 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227846
MAGNITUDE OF PULMONARY DISEASES - INCIDENTALLY DIAGNOSED ON AUTOPSY – AT LARGEST HOSPITAL and MEDICAL COLLEGE OF RAJASTHAN http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227844 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Kalpana Mangal, Praveen Dhakar, Ajay Yadav, Karuna Gupta, Sapna Gandhi.
Objective: A wide histopathological spectrum of preventable diseases can affect lungs. Many times radiological and clinical findings in pulmonary diseases are non specific hence pathology investigations can play important role in prompt diagnosis. In our 4 years cross-sectional study period (January2012- December2015), we have examined lungs of 1715 medico-legal autopsy cases. Objectives: 1. To know the histopathological spectrum of Lung diseases. 2. To know the frequency of pulmonary lesions in respect to age and sex. Materials & Methods: Representative sections from pulmonary lesions were taken and studied with the help of H&E and special stains wherever necessary. Results: The various pulmonary lesions were edema and congestion in 1325 (77.2%) cases, non tubercular pneumonia 137 (7.99%) cases, bronchopneumonia 15 (0.87%) cases, interstitial pneumonia 6 (0.35%) cases. Cases of tubercular pneumonia were 70 (4.08%) and pulmonary malignancies were 7 (0.41%) cases out of total pulmonary lesions. Pneumonias were occupying a large number, next to edema and congestion. Conclusion: The present study reveals the load and spectrum of lung disease in the largest Hospital & Medical College of Rajasthan, where infectious lesions (non-tubercular & tubercular pneumonias) are still the most common preventable causes of morbidity and mortality; hence autopsy study can be of great value in improving the vision and diagnostic setups for better clinical assessment, timely diagnosis and therapy.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:38:16 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227844
STUDY OFPAEDIATRIC CNS TUMORS IN TERTIARY CARE CENTER http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227842 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Grishma P. Jobanputra.
Objective: To elaborate pattern and frequency of CNS Tumors in a tertiary care center. Primary Neoplasm of the Central Nervous system are the most common solid tumors of childhood, making up 20% of all paediatric oncologic conditions,1,7 surpassed only by leukemia and lymphoma in frequency2. They have tendency to occur along the central neural axis and posterior fossa and CNS metastasis from extra-cerebral tumors are uncommon in childhood. Material Andmethod: In the present study, A two year retrospective review of CNS tumors in paediatric age group (
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:30:01 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227842
TO STUDY THE PREVALENCE OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) AMONGST ADOLESCENT CHILDREN REFERRED FOR BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS TO TERTIARY CARE RURAL MEDICAL INSTITUTE IN CENTRAL INDIA http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227840 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Vaidya A., Dua H., Mujawar N., Edbor A..
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, disorganization, and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of ADHD in adolescents referred for behavioral problems to rural tertiary health care center, to identify the gender difference andco-morbid factors associated with ADHD. Materials and Methods: Present study was a hospital based cross sectional study done at rural tertiary health care centre in central India. Multi Health Systems (MHS) CONNERS-3 questionnaire was used for assessment. Adolescent boys/girls referred by school or brought by their parents for behavioral problems at Child Guidance Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, were included in the study. Results: Amongst 148 study subjects, 21 subjects (14.18%) were diagnosed with ADHD, 73 (49.32%) were diagnosed with inattention, 58 (39.18%) with impulsivity/hyperactivity, 112 (75.67%) with learning problems, 62 (41.89%) with aggression, and 103 (69.58%) with family relation problems. There was statistically significant gender difference in the prevalence of ADHD, with male preponderant; male: female ratio was 3.2:1. Conclusion: The present study revealed that prevalence of ADHD is high amongst adolescents in rural health care setting. It is needed to formulate policies in rural India for effective combating ADHD at early age.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:16 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227840
Blood transfusion due to haemonchosis induced anaemia in a 4-year-old Kano brown doe http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=178570 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
BY Kaltungo, II Onoja, M Babashani & SO Okaiyeto.
A 4-year-old Kano brown doe weighing 20kg from a flock of 5 does was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital Ahmadu Bello University Zaria with complaints of unthriftness, emaciation inappetence, weakness and pasty diarrhea of two weeks duration. Thorough physical examination revealed pale mucous membranes with submandibular edema and puffy face which were indications of hypoproteinemia. Hematological results indicated a packed cell volume (PCV) of 12% on the day of presentation and 9% on the third day. Fecal culture revealed Haemonchus larvae. Blood (400mls) from a donor buck in the goat pen of the faculty was transfused on the third day of presentation through the jugular vein. Two days later a blood sample was collected and a hemogram was performed, the result indicated an appreciable PCV value (15%) and a hemoglobin concentration of 5g/dl. It can therefore be concluded that blood transfusion can be a life-saving procedure in haemonchosis induced anaemia.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=178570
Histologic developmental horizons of the prenatal dromedary tongue http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=198847 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
AZ Jaji, AS Saidu, MP Yawulda, N Elelu, F Da'u & SM Jajere.
We present a study on the histologic developmental horizons of the dromedary tongue using abattoir samples. The 13 month dromedary gestation period was divided into four quarters, giving the dromedary four prenatal growth phases. Feotuses were recovered from slaughtered camels and 1 cm2 samples were cut from dorsum and lateral parts of the apex, body and base of tongues of associated foetuses in each growth phase for histological analysis. The dorsal and lateral parts of the apex of the tongue showed variable sizes of underdeveloped filiform and fungiform papillae formed from the folding of non - keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The filiform papillae were interspersed with fungiform papillae. A brief glandless propria-submucosa of vascularized connective tissue was continuous with their lamina epithelialis. The muscularis showed vertical, longitudinal and transverse (X, Y, Z) directions of skeletal muscles. Same arrangement was found at the lingual body. Under-developed lentiform papillae extended from the terminus of the caudal aspect of the lingual body to the rostral aspect of the lingual base. The lingual base showed underdeveloped fungiform and vallate papillae. The lingual body and base were highly muscularized. The muscularity became more obvious at the second and third quarters. Unique to the third phase was apical keratinization of filiform papillae, marking its full development. The propria-submucosa was highly vascularized. The fourth growth phase marked the stage for full development of most of parts of the tongue except the mucosa of the lingual base, where taste buds were not observed in gustatory papillae, eventhough an earlier study had observed taste buds in gustatory papillae of the adult dromedary. It was concluded that most of the salient features of the postnatal dromedary tongue, such as gustatory and non-gustatory papillae, were already evident as early as the first growth phase.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=198847
Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites of domestic rats trapped from residential areas within Maiduguri Municipality, Nigeria http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=199870 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
BT Paul, F Kyari, MA Gadzama, MK Zango, EF Ejeh, JJ Ndahi & HP Mana.
A survey of domestic rats was conducted to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites in Maiduguri municipal between February and June 2015. Rats were randomly collected from residential sites within Maiduguri metropolis by trapping using mechanical and glue board traps. Trapped rats were examined for external parasites, humanely sacrificed and subjected to detailed postmortem examination for recovery of gastrointestinal helminths using standard methods. Parasites were identified using key morphological characteristics. Out of 85 rats sampled in the study, a total of 7(8.2%) were positive for gastrointestinal helminths. The only species of helminth identified was Hymenolepis diminuta. There was no significant difference in prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths among different age groups and sexes (P>0.05). The overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 9.4% and there was no significant difference in prevalence rates among different age groups and sexes (P>0.05). The prevalence of flea (5.9%) was higher than lice (3.5%). The two species of ectoparasites identified in the study were Ctenocephalides canis (5.9%) and Polyplax spinulosa (3.5%). It was concluded from this study that domestic rats trapped from Maiduguri harbor some species of endoparasites and ectoparasites which are potentially zoonotic or may serve as vectors of important zoonotic pathogens.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=199870
Immunohistochemical evaluation of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves orally exposed to Pasteurella multocida B:2 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=199666 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
MS Abubakar, M Zamri-Saad, S Jasni & ABZ Zuki.
The gastrointestinal lesions and bacterial distribution of buffalo calves were evaluated histologically using immunoperoxidase, following oral exposure to wild-type Pasteurella multocida B:2 at 109cfu/mL in phosphate buffered saline. The lesions were basically of mild to severe mucohaemorrhagic abomasitis and enteritis.The lesions were confirmed to be associated with the inoculated P. multocida B:2, using the immunoperoxidase technique. P. multocida B:2 antigen was detected not only in the bacterial clusters in the gastric pits, intestinal epithelia and capillaries, Brünner’s glands and Crypt of Lieberkühn but was also seen interacting with infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages intracellularly and on the surface of erythrocyte in congested vessels and haemorrhages. We observed higher localization and distribution of the immunoperoxidase reaction with increased severity of lesions along the gastrointestinal tract. This suggest intensity increases with increased amount of P. multocida B:2 or antigen in the tissue, which possibly leads to increase tissue damage.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=199666
Prevalence of potential toxigenic Aspergillus species isolated from poultry feeds in Sokoto metropolis http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=200494 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
RM Aliyu, MB Abubakar, Y Yakubu, AB Kasarawa, N Lawal, MB Bello, AY Fardami.
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of fungal organisms (especially Aspergillus species) in feeds used in poultry farms in Sokoto metropolis. During a period of 12 months (from April 2010 to March 2011), a total of 239 poultry feed samples comprising of 204 commercially prepared feeds and 35 self-compounded feeds were collected from 76 identified poultry farms in Sokoto and environs. Of the total 80 questionnaires administered, 76 (95.00%) were responded to. Out of the total samples, fungal species were isolated from 198 (82.9%) comprising of commercially prepared 163 (79.9%) and self-compounded 35 (100.0%) feed samples. A total of 258 fungal isolates were identified out of which 136 (52.7%) were Aspergillus species. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus fumigatus 80 (58.8%) followed by Aspergillus flavus 56 (41.2%). Since Aspergillus species are among the leading mycotoxigenic fungi, this study reveals that a potential exists for the production of mycotoxins that may be of both veterinary public health significance and its attending economic losses.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=200494
Fatal abomasal sand impaction in a giraffe calf (Giraffa camelopardalis) at the University of Ilorin zoological garden http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=204958 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
HO Jegede, AY Adenkola, A Obalowu, FR Olowoleni & PO Odeniran.
A post-mortem examination was carried out on a 4-month-old giraffe which was reported dead early hours of the morning in the zoological garden, University of Ilorin. The carcass of the animal appeared slightly emaciated and on opening of the carcass the abomasum was distended with a hard mass felt inside the organ. On opening of the organ, it was filled with sand and weighing 3.8kg. Geophagia due to various factors were queried in the cause of the condition including seasonal prevalence, nutrient deficiencies, feeding regimen and also housing inadequacies. Although poor milk intake, absence of maternal nurturing and inadequate captive conditions are the most likely causes of geophagia which eventually led to the death of the animal.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=204958
An overview of Ipomoea carnea subspecies fistulosa toxicosis in ruminants http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=207118 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
SI Ngulde, MB Tijjani & LN Giwa-Imam.
Abstract Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (convolvulaceae) is identified and confirmed as a poisonous plant to animals in many parts of the world. It is evergreen and common in Sahel region of Nigeria where there is lack of green pasture in most part of the year. It contains two toxic principles, swainsonine and calystegines causing neurological condition called acquired lysosomal storage disease. Its toxicological status is not determined in the region despite risk of poisoning. Therefore it is being reviewed for its toxic effects, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, pathology, diagnosis and management. More attention should be paid to the plant as potential source of toxins for domestic animals in the Sahel region of Nigeria.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=207118
Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in sera and eggs of helmeted guinea fowls (Numida meleagris galeata pallas) in Borno and Yobe states, Nigeria http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=208067 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
SU Hassan, AD El-Yuguda, HI Gambo, SS Baba, AG Ambali & IO Igbokwe.
The seroprevalence and maternal antibody profiles to Newcastle disease virus infection of guinea fowls were studied using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, in Borno and Yobe States of Nigeria. Of 822 sera and 354 egg yolk extracts tested, 327 (39.8%) and 242 (68.4%) were positive for NDV antibodies respectively. The seroprevalence was significantly higher (P< 0.05) in the dry (47%) than in the rainy (32.8%) seasons. Maternal antibodies in egg yolk extract (sampled during the rainy season), were significantly (P< 0.05) higher (68.4%) than the seroprevalence. The frequency distribution of antibody titers were skewed with 79.8% and 63.2 % of sera and egg yolk respectively having reciprocal antibody titres ≤ 20. The geometric mean antibody titre was higher (P< 0.05) in the dry season (3.7±2.0) than in the rainy season (2.5 ±1.7). The geometric mean titre was also higher (P
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=208067
Prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in goats slaughtered at Bauchi central abattoir, Bauchi State http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=208529 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
S Danbirni, HU Abubakar, L Allam, SB Pewan, IJ Barde & AKB Sackey.
Slaughter houses provide excellent avenues for detecting diseases of both economic and public health importance in livestock. A study of 12,429 slaughtered goats at the Bauchi central abattoir was carried out (from February to May, 2015) in order to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in slaughtered goats. The lesions were counted, visually examined and palpated during post mortem meat inspection. Of the 12,429 goats slaughtered and examined, tuberculosis-like lesions were observed in four (4) slaughtered goats with a prevalence of 0.03%. It was concluded that although the prevalence was relatively low, the financial losses and public health implications of the finding should not be over looked.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=208529
Male organs of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in spawning and non-spawning periods in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=210940 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
M Zakariah, A Yahaya, ML Sonfada & I Wiam.
The study was undertaken to investigate the gross reproductive organs of wild male Clarias gariepinus in spawning and non-spawning periods. Twenty mature males of C. gariepinus comprising of ten each during both periods were used. They weighed an average of 532 ± 8.32 gm during spawning and 510.8 ± 9.27 gm during non-spawning season and measured a standard body length of 43.2±4.72 cm and 42.1±2.48 cm during spawning and non-spawning seasons respectively. All fish were sourced from Gamboru fish market, Maiduguri and transported live to the gross Anatomy laboratory, Department of Veterinary Anatomy University of Maiduguri. Each fish was euthanized using tricaine anaesthetic at 8 drops/litre of water. The reproductive organs were removed en mass using scalpel, forceps, and scissors. Then the number of seminal vesicles were determined during spawning (37.8 ± 4.53) and non-spawning (36.32 ± 3.68) periods. The organs were seen consisting of lobular testes, milt duct, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral gland and papilla, which are whitish and milky colour appearances in spawning and non-spawning periods respectively. The milt duct which have the paired and unpaired part were also seen clearly in non-spawning period but relatively invisible in spawning period.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=210940
Anatomy of the female reproductive system of Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis) http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=213977 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences
MB Mahre, H Wahid, Y Rosnina, FFA Jesse, AZ Jaji, NA Ojo, B Umaru & TI Azmi.
The study aims to present baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of a poorly known tropical deer species, Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis). The anatomy of female reproductive system is described using seven uniparous hinds, aged between four and eight years. The various reproductive structures were studied via standard descriptive methods. There was a significant difference in the length and width of both right and left ovaries. The left ovary was slightly larger than the right ovary which indicates that it is physiologically more active. The results of the study showed that the anatomy of female reproductive system of R. timorensis was similar to that observed in domestic ruminants except that the uterus did not have an interconual ligament and this implies that the uterine horns are anchored in such a way that sperm deposited into only one uterine horn of the Rusa deer will be transported to the other uterine horn (interconual transport). Unlike the red brocket deer and pampas deer, the cervix of R. timorensis was characterized by six cervical rings projecting into the cervical canal. This feature should be taken into account when designing effective instrumentation and techniques for transcervical passage of semen during artificial insemination in this species. The results from this study have provided baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of this vulnerable species, and the knowledge generated can be useful in the development of appropriate reproductive techniques in order to increase its population in captivity and also enable easy detection of its reproductive anomalies, thus strategies to propagate and conserve the species can be established
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:23:11 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=213977
ESTIMATION OF SERUM LIPID LEVELS IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS PATIENTS: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227839 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Deepu Mathews Panickal, Prashanth Evuru, Jeethu John Jerry, Little Mahendra, Sandhya Cherukuri, Jaideep Mahendra.
Aims and Objectives: Hyperlipidemia refers to abnormally elevated levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood. Elevated serum cholesterol is a modifiable risk factor that is associated with a cardiovascular disease (CVD) with an estimated 4.4 million deaths each year. A positive association between serum triglyceride concentration and risk of coronary heart disease has been observed in many case-control studies. Infection such as periodontitis causes bacteremia and/or endotoxemia producing a cytokine cascade that leads to increased levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines. These molecules promote enhanced lipogenesis, increased lipolysis, and reduced lipid clearance resulting in hyperlipidemia. Hence the aim of the study is to estimate the serum lipid levels in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: 100 subjects were screened for the study and were grouped as experimental (50 subjects with chronic periodontitis) and control (50 systemically healthy subjects). To assess the periodontal condition all the subjects underwent the estimation of Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL). Blood samples were obtained and analyzed for serum lipid levels of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Triglyceride (TG) and Total Cholesterol (CHOL). Results: The mean values of LDL, HDL, TG and CHOL were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis subjects than healthy controls. Conclusion: The study concludes that patients with chronic periodontitis exhibited higher serum lipid levels. Hence these patients may be at a higher risk for further coronary events.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:18:00 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227839
PERIODONTAL TISSUE HEALTH IN ENDEMIC FLUOROSIS AREAS: A CASE STUDY http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227838 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
V. B. Jayantha Padmanabhan, R. M. Therraddi Muthu, C. Sumathi.
Aim: The objective of the study was to determine if there is any reduction in periodontal disease in people living in areas where the drinking water contains fluoride in more than optimum level- as compared to its definite proven anti caries activity. Methodology: A survey with 320 patients in two groups of 160 each in Sengattur [4.4ppm] Salem District, Tamil Nadu and Nalgonda [3.5ppm], in Andhra Pradesh, with a control of 200 patients from Mamandur in Chengalpet District Tamil Nadu with fluoride in a level of less than optimum, by using the OHI(S) Greene and Vermillion index for oral hygiene, PI., Periodontal Index Of Russell DMF index for caries, and Deans index for assessing Fluorosis of the teeth. The sample was divided into four groups of age as A (10-15 years), B (16-30 years), C (31-45 years), D (46-60 years). The socioeconomic status and oral hygiene habits were held constant and the following indices were used to assess the oral health condition. The accumulated data were statistically analyzed using the ‘Z test’ and student ‘t test’. Results: The results showed a lesser severity of periodontal disease with a slight reduction in OH1(S) scores also. There was a definite decrease in DMF and a direct positive correlation between DMF and PI. Conclusion: The study clearly indicates that DMF and periodontal scores are less in populations with excess fluoride in their drinking water; than in people drinking water, with fluoride in less than optimum level.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:11:29 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227838
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TOPICAL MICROSPONGE BASED GEL OF BIFONAZOLE http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227836 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Shapali A. Bagde*, Namrata C. Jadhav, Manisha S. karpe, Vilasrao J. Kadam.
Microsponges are tiny, true sponge-like spherical polymeric particles that consist of myriad of interconnecting voids within a non-collapsible structure with large porous surface. This results in a large reservoir within each microsponge, which can be loaded upto its own weight of active agents. The objective of the present work is to formulate a microsponge drug delivery system entrapped with bifonazole (BFZ) having controlled drug release with maximum antifungal activity. Microsponges were prepared using aqueous emulsion diffusion evaporation method. The gel phase was prepared by dispersing carbopol 940 in purified water and allowed to soak. Microsponges containing BFZ equivalent to 1%w/w were dispersed in propylene glycol. Preservatives were dissolved in the purified water. Aqueous solution was then mixed thoroughly into the microsponge containing solution. Finally, gel phase was incorporated into microsponge containing solution with stirring and the pH was adjusted to 6-6.5. Optimized microsponge based gel formulation showed slower flux of drug as compared to marketed formulation indicating controlled release of drug. No significant change in physical appearance as well as % drug content of optimum formulation was observed over the time period of stability studies. The BFZ loaded microsponge based gel was found to have good appearance, other micromeritic properties and entrapment efficiency along with controlled in vitro release profile of drug. Since BFZ, ethyl cellulose as well as carbopol has been reported as nonirritant for skin. The final formulation will not be irritating to skin. On the other ground of efficacy, avoidance of periods of over and under medication and improved patient compliance, microsponge based gel of BFZ will have better role in treating fungal infection of skin.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:08:46 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227836
BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE EVALUATION OF SOME GENERIC PRODUCTS OF ARTEMETHER-LUMEFANTRINE DOUBLE STRENGTH TABLETS MARKETED IN NIGERIA http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227835 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Awofisayo Sunday O., Okhamafe Augustine O., Arhewoh Matthew I..
The study was aimed at evaluating the bioavailability and bioequivalence of generic products of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) antimalarial double strength oral tablet formulation. A non-randomized open label single dose study in eighteen healthy African male subjects was designed. The volunteers were administered one tablet of a product with a fatty meal and 0.5 L of water, after overnight fast. Venous blood sampling was taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h post-dose and plasma samples analyzed for artemether and lumefantrine exposure simultaneously using a validated high performance liquid chromatographic system with Chromosil C18 column, flow rate and UV detection at 1.0 mL/min and 216 nm, respectively. Acetonitrile: potassium dihydrogen phosphate (70: 30%, v/v) and nevirapine were employed as mobile phase and internal standard, respectively. The primary endpoints were area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) from zero to 8 h and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax). The 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the geometric means of AUC0-8 was compared with the established bioequivalence limit. All enrolled subjects with mean age 28.5 ± 4.5 years completed the study. The Cmax for artemether and lumefantrine for the products ranged from 0.225 - 0.558 μg/mL and 0.319 – 0.517 μg/mL, respectively. Drug products AL1 and AL2 met the bioequivalence criteria. The other products failed the pharmacopoeia test specification for chemical content with respect to either or both API and their pharmacokinetic profiles varied with statistical significant differences (P>0.05). Only two of the generic products studied were bioequivalent and could be switched.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:06:36 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227835
SCREENING OF TABUBEIA ROSEA DC: FOR ANTITUBERCULOSIS, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES; AN IN VITRO APPROACH http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227832 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Suriyamurthy Anupriya, Rajamani Aravind, Kannan Elangovan, Kandasamy Murugesan*.
The aim and objective of this study, to screen phytochemical components which is responsible for antimycobacterial, antibacterial and the antioxidant activities. This study deals with the antimycobacterial activity of Tabubeia rosea against H37RV and MDR clinical isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately two million peoples annually. The results revealed that 500 μg/mL of the methanolic extract possessed significant antimycobacterial activity against H37RV strain of M. tuberculosis and on the other hand, methanolic extract at 100 μg/mL inhibited the growth of clinically isolated strain of M. tuberculosis. Besides antibacterial activity was tested against 5 human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among all the pathogens, Escherichia coli was found to be highly susceptible (18 mm) was recorded at 100 μg/mL. In vitro antioxidant activities revealed that methanolic extract could be a promising source of natural antioxidants. The results confirmed traditional use of Tabubeia rosea extract to fight against tuberculosis.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 01:01:06 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227832
INVESTIGATION OF MACROLICHENS FOR ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIALITY AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENS http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227831 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Rashmi Shivanna, Rajkumar H. Garampalli*.
In the present study fungicidal potential of four macrolichens Heterodermia comosa, Parmotrema margaritatum, Pseudocyphellaria aurata and Ramalina farinacea were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani. The hot crude extract was extracted from solvent methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone. The highest yield of 157 mg/ml was obtained from methanol extract of Pseudocyphellaria aurata. Important phytochemical constituents like tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and steroids were present in most of the lichen extracts tested. Antifungal activity of the extracts was evaluated by well diffusion assay, micro dilution assay and TLC bioautographic technique. The ethyl acetate extract of Ramalina farinacea showed highest zone of inhibition against Fusarium oxysporum with 17.0±1.0 mm and Fusarium solani with 13.3±0.57 mm. Micro dilution assay showed least MIC value of 0.781 mg/ml from Ramalina farinacea and Heterodermia comosa in ethyl acetate extracts against Fusarium oxysporum and 3.125 mg/ml against Fusarium solani. Clear zones of fungal inhibition were obtained on chromatogram in the ethyl acetate extract of Parmotrema margaritatum at Rf value 0.1, 0.21, 0.48. The obtained results prove that lichens can be used as potential antifungal agents against phytopathogens. Hence lichens serves as better natural fungicides in order to keep the environment safe, and which may also increase the yield and production of the crops. Further work could be focused on the isolation and purification of active components from the studied lichens.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 00:59:51 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227831
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTI-MICROBIAL, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF DERIVATIVES OF ISOFLAVANOIDS http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227830 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Alex Martin*, Dr. Rakesh Kr Jat.
The synthesis of 7-O substituted Isoflavanone [3-(4’-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-ones] was crried out by treating p-methoxyphenylacetic acid and resorcinol in the presence of anhydrous zinc chloride and phosphorous oxychloride to yield 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-(4’-methoxyphenyl)ethanone. 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-(4’-methoxyphenyl)ethanone is then treated with N,N’-dimethyl(chloromethylene) ammonium chloride to yield 7-hyroxy-3-(4’-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one. The resulting compound on subsequent addition with acid chlorides yields the title compounds. The structure of the newly synthesized compounds was established on the basis of physiochemical analysis and spectral analysis such as IR, H1-NMR and Mass Spectral data. The synthesized derivatives are evaluated for their anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 00:58:43 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227830
DETERMINATION OF BACTERIOCIDAL ACTIVITY OF BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED BY A CLINICAL ISOLATE OF E.COLI AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENS http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227829 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Joseph Pushpa Innocent D., Margaret Theresa J., Premkumar D..
Aim: The aim of this study is to estimate the bactericidal activity of bacteriocin against the common human pathogens. A total of 62 specimens were collected from patients attending the department of surgery, Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical sciences and Research Centre, during a period of six months. Methodology: Specimens collected were superficial pus swab from the wound, deep tissue biopsy and scraping from the base of the ulcers. Samples were cultured on Blood agar (BA) and MacConkey agar (MA). The plates were incubated at 37C over night. The aerobic organisms were identified by standard microbiological procedures as described in Bailey and scott’s Daignostic Microbiology. (Finegold et al.1986).(1) The E coli which was isolated and identified was used in the preparation of crude bacteriocin.( 2) It was purified by Ammonium sulphate precipitation(3)and concentrated by centrifugation. Desalting of protein was done by dialysis method.(4) The protein concentrations of these purified bacteriocin was determined by Lowry’s method.(5) Bacteriocin prepared from E coli was subjected for its bactericidal activity against some human pathogens by minimum inhibitory concentration method. Optical density (OD) of the culture was measured at 660 nm using spectrophotometer. Bactericidal activity of bacteriocin against human pathogens was estimated. Results: The results were analyzed, most of the pathogens need a very low concentration of the bacteriocin for the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).We observed that there is a slight variation in MIC among the different bacterial pathogens. Conclusion: In General when the concentration of the bacteriocin increased then the OD values of the culture tubes were decreased. In conclusion Bacteriocin not only have the bacteriocidal activity but also dose dependent in different bacteria.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 00:57:48 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227829
SEARCH FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE THIAZOLIDINEDIONE: A SHORT REVIEW http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227828 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Mousumi Shyam, Biplab Debnath,* Prithesh Devbhuti.
Thiazolidinedione and its analogs are versatile substrates, which can be used for the synthesis of numerous heterocyclic compounds. Thiazolidinedione and its derivatives are used in organic synthesis and they are used in evaluating new product that possesses different biological activities. This review covers updated information on the most active thiazolidinedione derivatives that have been reported to show considerable pharmacological actions such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic. From these results, ideas for future molecular modifications leading to compounds with greater favorable pharmacological properties may be derived. Further we can conclude that many other derivatives of thiazolidione can be synthesized which will be expected to show potent pharmacological activities.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 00:57:41 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227828
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO CHARACTERIZATION OF CEFACLOR LOADED FLOATING MICROSPHERES http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227826 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Swathi Chilukala*, Vijaya Kumar Bontha, Rajeswara Rao Pragada.
Cefaclor loaded floating microspheres were formulated for enhancing gastric residence time to improve its oral absorption and to get sustained drug delivery and evaluated for in vitro and in vivo studies. Microspheres were prepared by using HPMC K4M and ethyl cellulose as the rate controlling polymers by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The formulated floating microspheres were characterized for their yield, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release and buoyancy. The optimized formulation (F6) showed 93.6±1.25% of drug release after 12h and 78.8±2.5% of entrapment efficiency. All the formulations have good buoyancy which were floated over 12h in the dissolution medium. Optimized formulation was studied for in vivo pharmacokinetic activity. Optimized formulation treated group shown significant (p
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Thu, 05 May 2016 00:56:18 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227826
The Stochastic Futures of the Natural Gas Prices: Russian Federation in Caspian Region http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227822 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: Econometrics Letters
Narmin Mammadova.
This study examines the convergence hypothesis of natural gas price series of Russian Federation and USA using both linear and nonlinear time series techniques Russian Federation and USA during the period of 1991-2011. Although the linear Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF), Philips Perron (PP), test provide evidence of the existence of a unit root, which means that the series are nonstationary, KPSS test result support the null hypothesis of existence of the stationary series. A nonlinear test as an alternative approach to investigate whether there are nonlinearities in the series is also taken into consideration. KSS, the nonlinear testing procedure provide some supportive evidence of a nonlinear price convergence among the Russian Federation and USA.
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Thu, 05 May 2016 00:26:26 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227822
Reason analysis for the causes of chronic kidney disease cases admitted in dialysis unit, satisfaction and their awareness and practices about restrictions in their dietary intake http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=223963 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
G. Vishal Rao, B. T. Rao, K. Valleswary, N. Laksmana Rao.
Background: Dialysis treatment is useful in chronic renal failure, which removes waste products from the blood. CKD is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity and there are a number of clinical indications to initiate dialysis in patients with CKD. Energy intake to be maintained at normal levels in dialysis patients and recommended is 35kcal/kg body weight per day and study was conducted with objectives of analysing main reasons of chronic renal failure patients admitted in dialysis unit and also to assess patient’s self-satisfaction about dialysis and to know about the awareness and practice of dietary restrictions. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 100 chronic kidney disease patients who received dialysis in Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Ongole, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh. Results: Common causes for CKD were Hypertension - 39%, Diabetes and hypertension-20% and Diabetes only -8%. Mean overall health satisfaction among patients was 6.25 ± 1.36; highest satisfaction was noticed in following spirituality 7.31±1. Significant association was found between the mean patient satisfaction undergone for dialysis and the way staff of dialysis unit interacting with patients (P
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Thu, 05 May 2016 00:14:20 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=223963
Biometrical Study of the Genitalia of Kano Brown Goats and Yankasa Sheep http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=222904 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences
Adakole Hyacinth Abu, Terzungwe Ahemen, Leo Daniel Ojabo, Jeremiah Oluwabamise Nzere, Victor Amedu.
Aim: To determine biometry of the female genitalia of Kano Brown goats and Yankasa sheep. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three samples (66 caprine and 27 ovine samples) of the entire reproductive tracts were collected and evaluated for biometrical dimensions. Results: There was no significant difference in ovarian biometry of the sheep and goat, except the differences in their widths and weights. Biometry of the vagina and cervix agrees with established documentation. Pregnancy did not affect length of the uterine body but increased length of the uterine horns. Non-pregnant uterine horn of the ewe was greater than doe’s in length and weight. Conclusion: It is inferred that biometrical status of female genital tract is essential in artificial insemination, and pregnancy diagnosis.
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Wed, 04 May 2016 21:05:25 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=222904
Therapeutic management of Heat stroke in HF cross bred cows http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=208699 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences
RAKESH JAGDISH BHAI BHOJANI, anju chahar, vikram singh dewal, kapil pravin bhai parmar, anil kumar limba, sanjay kumar meena, mukesh kumar meena.
Abstract The aim of the study was to find out the manage mental cooling therapy in clinical cases of heat stroke in HF cross bred cows which caused due to high ambient temperature and humidity. Eight HF cross bred cows with history of heat exposed to more than 30 minute were selected for the study. Although with normal vital sign, clinical examination of rises rectal temperature and high respiratory rate. The clinical cases were diagnosed as heat stroke and were treated successfully with corticosteroids, antibiotic, cooling and fluid therapy and vitamin B-complex injection.
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Wed, 04 May 2016 20:48:46 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=208699
A GROSS MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF GENITAL ORGANS FROM FEMALE ZEBU CATTLE IN AND AROUND JIMMA TOWN (SOUTH-WEST ETHIOPIA) http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=206048 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences
Amare Argaw Arata.
SUMMARY Out of 147 female genital tracts collected and examined, abnormalities were recorded in 56(38.1%).The most common abnormalities encountered were uterine abnormalities (25.2%), followed by the ovarian(10.9%) and vaginal abnormalities (2%). Among the uterine abnormalities the most frequent lesions, observed in cows were; endometritis (4.81%), mucometra (4.1%), cervicities (2.7%) and cyst in uterine lumen 0.68%. Pyometra, hydrosalpinx and hydrometra were observed both in cows and heifers with (2%) each. Similarly the most frequent ovarian abnormalities were; ovario-bursal adhesions (6.1%),ovarian cysts (2.7%) and ovarian hypoplasia (2.1%). Vaginitis was the most frequent abnormality observed in vaginal abnormalities(2%). In general, the prevalence rate of abnormalities of reproductive tracts was significantly different (p0.05) among different age groups of examined animals. Keywords: Ethiopia – Genital tract - Female Zebu cattle –Abnormalities
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Wed, 04 May 2016 20:43:53 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=206048
Epidemiology of cattle respiratory infection in Gezira State, Sudan: Serological evidence of adenovirus 3 infection. http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=205550 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences
Nada Elamein Mohammed, Intisar Kamil Saeed, Salma Bushra Elmagbool, Yahia Hassan Ali.
In this study, the epidemiology of cattle respiratory infection in Gezira State and the prevalence of BAV-3 were studied. Collected data about the reported condemned lungs due to pneumonia in slaughter houses in Gezira State during 2005 -2009 was statistically analyzed. A total of 22953 (6.4%) lungs were condemned during 2005-2009, the highest percentage of condemnation was seen in autumn (36%) then summer (35%). Most of the reported cases were during April and September (11%). there was significant difference between seasons (P=0.000). The reported cattle cases diagnosed as having pneumonia in Wad Medani Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Gezira State during 2005-2009 were 209 out of 875 animals brought to the clinics (23.9%). There was no significant difference between seasons in pneumonia cases (P=0.967). Out of 287 sera samples tested by indirect ELISA for BAV-3 antibodies, 263 (91.6%) were found positive. There was a significant difference between age groups (P =0.001) but there was no significant difference between different breeds (P = 0.839), sex (P = 0.088) and regions (P = 0.839). In calves showing respiratory signs, BAV-3 antigen was detected in 16 (36.4 %) of nasal swabs while BAV-3 antibodies were detected in 35 (79.5%) of serum samples. It was concluded that respiratory infection in cattle is widely distributed in Gezira State. It is thought to be a major cause of economic loss in the cattle industry and BAV-3 is a common viral infection in large cattle herds.
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Wed, 04 May 2016 20:40:34 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=205550
Comparison of Indispron® D110 and Decis® in the control of red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation in Specific Pathogens Free Birds in Vom, Nigeria http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=197976 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences
Goni Abraham Dogo, James Tanko, Rebecca Ari, Cecilia Kogi, Markus Biallah, Paul Davou Kaze, Hurbertus Kleeberg.
The main objective of this study was to compare the efficacies of Indispron® D110 and Decis® in the control of red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation in a specific pathogen free birds reared for vaccine production in National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom. A total of 360 birds comprising of 150 Harcowhite growers (Pen A); 110 old layers (Pen B) and 100 cockerels (Pen C) all 16 weeks old housed separately were used in this study. Two groups (Harcowhite and Old layers were sprayed with both insecticides according to manufacturer instructions for a period of 14 days while the Cockerels were left as control. Results in group 1 where Indispron® was used, showed a significant reductions (95%) in mite’s population after three days of spraying in the first week. There was a drastic reduction in the mite’s population as no clusters were seen and even the shanks were free of mite’s infestation three days after spraying in week two of treatment indicative of 100% effectiveness. In group 2 where Decis® was used, there was reduction in the number of mites (75%) efficacy, though few clusters were still seen in cracks on day three post treatment. On day five after the third spray there were no mites seen (100%) efficacy in week two post treatment compared with the control group still having clusters of D. gallinae in the crevices of the pen and the shanks still scaly. Indispron® D110 was found to be superior to Decis® in action and effectiveness against the red mite and is hereby recommended for an integrated ectoparasites control in poultry farms in Nigeria.
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Wed, 04 May 2016 20:37:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=197976
Challenges Involve in Metacercariae Extraction, Isolation and Preservation for Experimental Research. http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=196635 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences
Dauda Iliyasu, Rwuaan J Sankay, Chiezey N Paulin, Ate I Utem, Okubanjo O Olayinka, Ahamed Ishiyaku Musa, Ajani J Ayinla.
The study was designed to evaluate the challenges involve in extraction, isolation and preservation of metacercariae for research purposes. Cercariae is one of the active larval stage in the life cycle of Fasciola. Metacercariae is the encysted cercariae which served as intermediate host, commonly found in snails Lymnea natalensis and Lymnea auricularia in the tropics. One hundred (100) naturally infested snails of Lymnea natalensis and Lymnea auricularia was collected from river barks and streams for extraction of metacercariae. The snails were crushed in a petri dish using forceps and a dissection pin. The shells were removed while the tissues were washed with water and sieved. The filtrate was left uncovered in a Petridish for 72 hours, and the supernatant discarded. The petri dishes were emptied of water and kept at 4 0C in a refrigerator. The attached metacercariae on the petri dish were sprinkle with water every 48 hours to sustain their viability. The attached metacercariae on the petri dish were scraped into 40 ml of distilled water in a cylinder and mixed, 0.1 ml of the mixture at 3 slide reading revealed the percentage of viable and dead metacercariae 33.33 % 38.14 % and 28. 52 % and 35.59 %, 25.42 % and 38.98 % respectively. It was concluded that moisture and refrigerator temperature 4 0C are key for isolation and preservation of viable metacercariae.
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Wed, 04 May 2016 20:33:15 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=196635
Effect of different treatments on mycological status of Egyptian salted fish http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=196350 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences
Hesham A. Ismail, Mady A. Ismail, Hussein Y. Ahmed, Alaa K. Youssef.
The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of sodium chloride, refrigeration and nitrate/nitrite mixture on mycological status of salted fish. Four groups of salted fish (Mugil cephalus) were prepared in the laboratory using 10% salt, 10% salt plus refrigeration, 10% salt plus nitrate/nitrite mixture or 20% salt. Samples of fish from each group were taken at zero, 5, 10, 15, 20 days and ripening point interval and were analyzed for their pH values, NaCl concentrations and mycological status. The pH values showed a general increasing trend in the four groups of samples from the initial value of 6.1 to different final value for each group. Similarly, the NaCl concentrations showed an increasing trend throughout the experimental period from the zero day until the ripening point. The mycological evaluation revealed that a total number of 27 genera, 63 species and one species variety in addition to some unidentified species of yeasts and sterile mycelia were isolated from fish samples. Adding a mixture of nitrate/nitrite was effective in reducing the total number of fungi. On the other hand refrigeration and increasing the concentration of salt used in salting from 10 to 20% had inconsistent effect on the total number of fungi.
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Wed, 04 May 2016 20:28:08 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=196350
EFFICACY OF KALO JEERA SEEDS (Nigella sativa) AND THANKUNI (Centella asiatica) SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKEN http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=193025 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences
Muhammad Rakibul Hasan.
In modern era, treatment methods become diversified and developed day by day and organic medicine is one of the modern technology which also introduced in our poultry sector. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Thankuni (Centella asiatica) and Kalo Jeera (Nigella sativa) powdered supplementation as a growth promoter in broiler chickens. A total of 20 day-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were purchased from local hatchery and after seven days of acclimatization chicks were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. The group A was kept as control and fed on only normal balanced diet. The group B was treatment group fed on normal diet with additional supplementation of Thankuni and kalo jeera powder in water. For observation of growth rate, live body weight was taken at first day and every seven days interval up to 5th weeks. Besides it hematological tests were performed at 35th days for searching hematological changes in both control (A) and treatment (B) groups. The initial body weight of groups A and B on 1st day of this experiment were 43.00±0.56 gm and 42.50±0.35 gm, respectively and after 35th day of experiment final body weight were 1450±57.35 gm and 1700±58.56 gm (p
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Wed, 04 May 2016 20:07:15 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=193025
Scenario of Genetic Selection and Its Impact on Bovine Mastitis http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=188188 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences
Ahmad Arif, Muneeb U Rehman, Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Bilal Ahmad Mir, Rahil Razak Bhat, Manzoor R Mir, Sheikh Bilal, Ishraq Hussain.
Ever since their original domestication, farm animals have been undergoing human managed selection. Originally, selection was limited to docility and manageability, but in the last few decades breeding programmes have focused on the genetic improvement of production traits, in terms of milk yield, growth rate etc. Genetic selection together with preventive health care, hygiene and veterinary treatment is the most important approved combat strategies against mastitis. The potentiality of genetic selection as a possible mode of resistance to mastitis is by the fact that the disease is in part genetically determined; although little information is known about the genes that transfer resistance. The importance of genetic selection for resistance to mastitis is exacerbated by the deteriorating genetic base for resistance to mastitis with intense selection for production traits, which is due to an unfavourable genetic correlation between milk yield and mastitis. Therefore there is need for accurate selection criteria in genetic selection for resistance to mastitis balanced against genetic improvement of other traits. The consequences of selection and breeding can be judged on the basis of its impacts on health and the welfare of individual offspring and future generations. Many genetic studies showed an unfavourable genetic correlation between milk yield and incidence of ketosis, lameness, metabolic stress, mastitis, reduces fertility and longevity. In this review we will discuss selection for high yield traits and their consequences; and need for formulating future breeding goals that include not only production traits but also traits concerning to fertility, longevity, animal welfare etc.
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Wed, 04 May 2016 19:58:01 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=188188
BASICS OF EQUINE LAMINITIS - A REVIEW http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=150828 2016-05-06T04-12-55Z
Source: International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences
Raghuvir Bhatt, Dipak Suthar, Shivrarsinh Jhala, Naresh Kelawala.
Laminitis is a major disease of horses because of the associated pain and debilitating nature that make it a life-threatening condition. A complete understanding of laminitis and its complex pathophysiologic processes remains elusive despite substantial efforts and recent advances by many scientists over the last few decades. For this reason, preventative and therapeutic management strategies remain largely empirical and anecdotal with little information from evidence-based medicine.
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Wed, 04 May 2016 19:50:56 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=150828