ScopeMed - RSShttp://www.scopemed.orgScopeMed RSSen-us Copyright © 2011 ScopeMed All rights reserved. ScopeMedhttp://www.scopemed.org/img/logo-scopemed-ttk.gifhttp://www.scopemed.org 2016-06-27T15-03-05Z Xenia Negatively Affecting Kopyor Nut Yield in Kalianda Tall Kopyor and Pati Dwarf Kopyor Coconuts http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=197598 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture
Ismail Maskromo, Siti Halimah Larekeng, Hengky Novarianto, Sudarsono Sudarsono.
Xenia is a phenomenon usually associated with phenotype characters controlled by a single recessive gene. The genotype of pollen donor directly determines the phenotype of fruits or seeds harvested from female recipients. Kopyor coconut is a unique coconut mutant and its formation is an example of xenia, since the genotype of the pollen donor determines the phenotype of the harvested nuts. The objectives of this research were to evaluate xenia in two types of kopyor coconuts (i.e. Kalianda Kopyor Tall and Pati Kopyor Dwarf), determine effects of homozygous KK normal and heterozygous Kk Kopyor coconut ratio, and effects of homozygous KK normal coconuts removal from mix population on yield of Kopyor nuts. For Kalianda Tall Kopyor coconut, field observations were conducted at three kopyor coconut plantations in Kalianda district, Lampung Selatan, Lampung-Indonesia while observations of Pati Dwarf Kopyor were conducted at Tayu district, Pati, Central Java-Indonesia. In both regions, coconut provenances were mapped using GPS and sub-samples were taken based on determined criteria. For each sampled tree, observations were recorded for the following variables: nut yield and yield components. The quantitative data were subjected to t-test statistical analysis to evaluate the significant differences among the observed parameters. Results of this experiment showed the presence of more homozygous KK normal coconuts among provenances of Kalianda Tall heterozygous Kk Kopyor coconut resulted in lower harvested kopyor nuts than the expected value. Moreover, removal of homozygous KK normal coconuts from a mixed coconut population increased yield of kopyor nuts. Those results indicated xenia occurred in both Kalianda Tall and Pati Dwarf Kopyor coconuts and it negatively affected the kopyor nut yield.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 09:13:55 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=197598
RGB color imaging to detect Aspergillus flavus infection in dates http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=215965 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture
Mathew Ann Teena, Annamalai Manickavasagan, A.M. Al-Sadi, R. Al-Yahyai, M.L. Deadman, A. Al-Ismaili.
In this study, the potential of RGB color imaging to detect fungal contamination in three varieties (Khalas, Fard and Naghal) of dates was investigated. The samples were treated as three groups: UC (untreated control), SC (surface sterilized, rinsed and air-dried) and IS (surface sterilized, rinsed, air-dried and fungal inoculated). Color images of control samples and A. flavus inoculated date fruits after every 48 h of inoculation for 10 days were acquired using an RGB color imaging system (n=3150). The classification accuracies for IS were compared with UC and SC separately using a two-class model (control vs. infected (all stages of infection together)), six-class model (control, infected day 2, day 4, day 6, day 8 and day 10) and pair-wise model (control vs. each stage of infection). In the two-class model, the highest accuracy obtained by Fard, Khalas and Naghal dates were 97, 100 and 99%, respectively. The developed algorithm was also tested on pooled dates (all three varieties were combined together: control vs infected), and 98% and 99% of infested samples were correctly classified from untreated control and sterile control, respectively in two class models. In six class models, highest classification accuracies of 99-100% were obtained for IS Day 10 in all three date varieties.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 09:10:25 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=215965
Musculoskeletal problem in professional basketball players http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227682 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Journal of Therapies and Rehabilitation Research
Sathya Guru Prasad, Ramakrishnan K.S, Shweta S D Phadke, Dhanashree Nandkumar Badhe.
The aim of the study was to find musculoskeletal problem in professional basketball players. A sample of 50 professional basketball players were taken in age group 15-30 yrs. Validated questionnaire was used to evaluate the musculoskeletal problem in professional basketball player. The study concludes that the most common musculoskeletal problem is ligament injuries, the female players are more injured as compared to male players, and the musculoskeletal problem is more in the age group of 20-25 years.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 08:11:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=227682
Computed tomography predictors for in-hospital mortality in severe and moderate head injury patients http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231815 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Surgery Journal
Bhaskar Naidu P., Truman Srinivas M., Selvakumar K..
Background: Traumatic brain injury is single leading cause of death and disability following injury. Clinical information collected at baseline and computed tomography (CT) brain scan findings may predict in-hospital mortality rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate which features on the admission CT scan might add significantly to other baseline clinical information for predicting mortality in patients with head injury. Methods: Baseline CT scans were reviewed for patients with moderate and severe head injuries from head injury registry from October 2007 to October 2009. Baseline demographic and injury status and outcome at discharge or death were recorded. Details from the CT scan using marshals grading was used along with other CT scan findings. CT characteristics like diffuse cerebral edema, mass lesions like extra dural haemotoma, subdural haemotoma, intra parenchymal haemorrhage, traumatic sub arachnoid haemorrhage, intra ventricular haemorrhage, basal cisterns, midline shift were evaluated. All the patients were classified into marshalls divisions. If required repeated scans were evaluated and the worst CT scan has been taken into consideration. Results: 211 CT scans were read from patients with moderate severe head injuries. Out of the 24 patients in grade I, 4 died accounting for 16.666%. In grade II out of 47 patients 9 died accounting for 19.148%. In grade III out of 24 patients 5 died accounting for 20.833%. In grade IV out of 30 patients 11 died accounting for 36.666%. In grade V out of 76 patients 20 died accounting for 27.631%. In grade VI out of 10 patients 6 died accounting for 60%. In this study of 211 patients 55 died accounting for 26.06%. Conclusions: Marshall`s CT grading holds good for mortality prediction in moderate and severe head injury patients. Status of basal cisterns and midline shift serves as independent predictors for in-hospital mortality.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 07:21:46 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231815
Comparative study of impression smear with conventional mechanical corneal scrapping by potassium hydroxide (10%KOH) in diagnosis of fungal keratitis http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231886 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Surgery Journal
Amit Patel, P.D. Banswal, A. Ghosh, R.K. Jaiswal, Shweta Goel, M.P. Tandon.
Background: Diagnosis of fungal keratitis remains a challenge to an ophthalmologist due to variety of presentation of patients. If a prompt, aggressive and early treatment is not started disease turns indolent resulting in sloughing of cornea, serious loss of vision, possible perforation and loss eye. Methods: This observational study was conducted in upgraded department of ophthalmology, BRD Medical College, Gorakhpur, India among 50 patients of suspected fungal keratitis. Results: Fungal keratitis is more common in young males of rural area. Most of fungal corneal (>5 mm) with presence of hypopyon, pigmentation and satellite lesion as consistent features. KOH smear with impression smear technique was positive in 36 (72.0%), out of total 50 cases. KOH smear with conventional mechanical scrapings was positive in 35 (70.0%), out of total 50 cases. Sensitivity of impression smear technique as compared to conventional scraping was 100.0%. Sensitivity of mechanical scraping technique as compared to impression smear technique was 92.11%. Conclusions: Impression cytology is a recent diagnostic tool in fungal keratitis. It has various advantages over mechanical scraping like no expensive equipments like slit lamp and operation microscope required. Impression smear KOH mount is comparative to conventional mechanical corneal scraping KOH examination in making and tentative diagnosis of fungal keratitis and can be accurately replied upon for initiation antifungal therapy.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 07:19:15 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231886
A study to evaluate the optimal time for laparoscopic cholecystectomy after acute cholecystitis attack: a tertiary care centre study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232859 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Surgery Journal
Himesh R. Chauhan, Rahul V. Charpot.
Background: Initially, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was contraindicated in patients with acute cholecystitis because of the fear of increased morbidity and high rates (60%) of conversion to open surgery. Nowadays, acute cholecystitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and the definitive treatment is laparoscopic cholecystectomy but when to perform surgery still remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to find out whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed for acute cholecystitis irrespective of the time since onset of acute symptoms. Methods: A total of 100 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed for acute cholecystitis were evaluated for duration of surgery, conversion rates, biliary and other organ injury, and postoperative stay by chi square test and paired t-tests using SPSS software. 45 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 48 h to seven days of onset of symptoms (group 1) and 55 patients underwent surgery after 6 weeks of onset of symptoms (group 2). Results: While the duration of surgery was comparable in both groups (56.5±15 vs. 45.5±15 min), there were no significant difference in conversions or major biliary or other organ injury in any of the two groups. Postoperative stay was also comparable between the two groups (4±1.5 vs 3±1.5, days) but total hospital stay was significantly reduced in group1 compared to group 2 (5±1.5 vs 8.5±1.5 days) and so as total cost is also reduced. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can safely be performed at any time after the onset of acute cholecystitis. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy has an outcome comparable to the delayed procedure, with a shorter total hospital stay and lower total costs, and it should be considered as the preferred approach in treatment of acute cholecystitis.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 07:17:21 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232859
A comparative analysis of the two most common surgical exposures for clubfoot http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=230993 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Surgery Journal
Swagat Mahapatra, Vineet Thomas Abraham.
Background: The surgical release of clubfoot should address all the pathological structures, including a complex soft tissue release of the hind foot and mid foot, possibly one of the most complicated procedures performed in orthopedic surgery. As in any surgical procedure involving multiple anatomic steps, exposure is the key to a successful comprehensive release. This study was conducted with the aim of comparing two of the most widely used surgical exposures in clubfeet. Methods: This was a prospective study of 35 patients having 60 diseased feet, aged between 1 to 3 years. Patients with neglected idiopathic clubfoot who did not respond to initial Ponseti’s casting; and were planned for Posteromedial soft tissue release (PMSTR) surgery were included in this study. Group I (18 patients-30 feet) underwent surgery using the hemi-cincinnati incision and group II (17 patients-30 feet) by turco method of exposure. 2 patients (3 feet) of the turco group were lost to follow-up. Preoperative and postoperative pirani scores were calculated and compared. Other clinical follow-up parameters included pain (were assessed using FLACC behavioral pain assessment scale) and wound complications (necrosis, adhesions and scar hypertrophy). Radiological parameters were also assessed. Results: As per the difference between pre and postoperative (3 months) pirani score, 5 feet had a good result, 22 had satisfactory, and 3 had poor results in group I while in group II, 3 had good, 19 had satisfactory, and 5 had poor results. 2 feet in group I and 10 feet in group II had wound necrosis in the immediate postoperative period. There was no substantial difference in the postoperative angles in both groups. Conclusions: PMSTR is an acceptable surgical method for treating neglected idiopathic clubfeet. The hemi cincinnati incision has lesser number of wound complications and also better deformity correction as evaluated by pirani scores. This study supports the use of hemi cincinnati incision over turco incision in posteromedial soft tissue release for treating idiopathic clubfoot.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 07:14:42 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=230993
Retrospective analysis of clinical pathway in management of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a tertiary care centre in south India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=230198 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Surgery Journal
Parimuthukumar Rajappa, Saravanan Sanniyasi, Prashanth Krishna Gopalaswamy, ManuneethimaranThiyagarajan.
Background: With the advent of laparoscopy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become one of the most commonly performed surgeries today. In many parts of the world laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed as a day-care procedure. The aim was to compare the efficacy of clinical pathway versus no pathway in the management of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in terms of prolonged antibiotic usage and extended hospital stay. Methods: A study was conducted on all the patients included in the clinical pathway. The results were compared between the patients undergoing surgery the year prior and one year after the implementation of clinical pathway. Results: It is seen that, one year prior to the implementation of the pathway, the doses of antibiotics given were about 9-10 doses and the stay in the hospital was about 4-5 days and one year following implementation of the pathway it has been noticed that the number of doses of antibiotics has reduced and is about 4-5 doses and the stay in the hospital has shortened and is about 2-3 days. Conclusions: This study shows us the importance of having guidelines in the form of a clinical pathway for surgical procedures as it helps to streamline patient care without any compromise in the quality of care.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 07:09:09 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=230198
A prospective randomized trial on trauma thoracic cage with rib fracture especially first rib fracture and associated complications http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=229634 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Surgery Journal
Mahinder Pal Kochar, Satyendra Pal Singh.
Background: Thoracic cage is an osseocartilaginous cavity which not only protects and supports vital organs but also has dynamic role in mechanism of respiration. The aim was to study the mechanism of first rib fracture, incidence and complications of first rib and other ribs’ fracture and their sequelae. Methods: A prospective randomized trial was conducted on 300 patients of trauma thoracic cage having rib fracture with or without associated injuries at NIMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India from April 2013 to March 2016. All patients were examined on a fixed protocol (age, sex, mode of injury, vital status, number and site of rib fracture) with associated injury and complications. Results: Maximum patients (including males and females both) with first and other rib fractures were in the age group of 11-30 years. The most common mode of trauma was roads traffic accident (RTA). First rib fractured at shaft by indirect trauma mostly. Commonly reported chest, abdomen and associated injury complications were haemothorax, haemoperitoneum and head injury respectively. Most of the patients were treated conservatively except 1% patients who required thoracotomy. Conclusions: Most common cause of chest trauma with rib fracture was RTA and first rib fracture was indirect trauma. The most common cause of mortality was an associated head injury.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 07:02:38 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=229634
Comparative study of efficacy and safety of sitagliptin versus glimepiride in patients of type-2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with metformin alone http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233249 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Journal of Advances in Medicine
Manuj Sharma, Rakesh Sonawane, J.L. Marko.
Background: Di-peptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors when used as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs such as metfomin, thiazolidinedione or sulphonylurea are effective and well tolerated in diabetes management. The aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sitagliptin compared to glimepiride as a dual therapy for the treatment of type-2 diabetes patients inadequately controlled with metformin. Methods: It was an observational, open, comparative and multiple follow up study, included 70 patients visiting department of medicine and department of pharmacology at Gandhi Medical College and associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India for the period of 1 year. Patients of type 2 diabetes who were on metormin at least for last 3 months and were with inadequate glycemic control (HbA1C levels >7% and
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 06:52:49 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233249
A comparative study of platelet parameters in end stage renal disease patients undergoing haemodialysis and healthy individuals http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233101 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Journal of Advances in Medicine
Lokesh S, Siva Ranganathan Green, Tony Kadavanu Mathew, Hemachandar R, Arun Kumar, Shashank Rakesh Tiwari, Amirtha Lakshmi, Ezhumalai G.
Background: With the rising trend of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in developing countries like India, there is also a rise in chronic complications like end stage renal disease (ESRD). ESRD poses a huge financial burden on family and health care sector due to a high morbidity and mortality associated with it. Cardiovascular complications remain the most common cause of death among ESRD patients and those undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Hemodialysis patients behave in a distinct way that they are relatively more prone for bleeding than thrombotic manifestations. In recent days abnormalities in platelet parameters are found to be an effective tool in risk stratification of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to develop coronary artery disease. Due to scarcity of literature especially from India, the present study was taken to find the association of various platelet parameters among hemodialysis patients. The aim was to study the platelet distribution width (PDW), mean platelet volume, platelet count, plateletcrit and platelet large cell ratio (PLCR) among ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis and compare with healthy age and sex matched controls. Methods: The present study was done on two groups. Group A (Cases) consisting of 40 ESRD patients receiving HD for more than 6 months, and group B (controls) consisting of 40 healthy controls from hospital staffs and healthy volunteers matched for age and sex. Results: The mean values of platelet distribution width (PDW), mean platelet volume, platelet count, plateletcrit and platelet large cell ratio (PLCR) were found to be lower in cases when compared to healthy controls. PDW, platelet count and plateletcrit attained statistical significance, while others did not. Conclusions: Abnormality in platelet parameter to assess CVD risk may be applicable in general population as well as in CKD patients, but its role in hemodialysis patient’s further need to be evaluated.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 06:48:17 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233101
Electrophysiological study to detect serial changes and prognosis in patients of Guillain Barre Syndrome from north-west Rajasthan, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232944 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Journal of Advances in Medicine
Arvind Vyas, Sarika Swami, Kartik Jaiswal.
Background: The Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) is the commonest cause of acute flaccid paralysis in much of the world, after the introduction of vaccine for poliomyelitis. Electrophysiological study may play an important role in further investigation of the pathogenesis and assessment of prognosis. This study was undertaken to see any changes in electrophysiological pattern at one month follow up and prognosis of patients with Guillain Barre Syndrome. Methods: The study included 28 patients of Guillain Barre Syndrome admitted between the period of July 2014 to June 2015 in the department of medicine and neurology, SP Medical College and AG Hospitals, Bikaner, India. The clinical diagnosis was based on criteria proposed by the national institute of neurological, and communicative disorders and stroke (NINCDS). Each patient was assessed both clinically (including disability score) and electrophysiologically at the time of presentation and at one month±seven days of follow up. Results: GBS was more common in early decades. Male to female ratio was 4.6:1. On electrophysiological study mixed pattern was most common (42.86%) followed by axonal (32.14%) and demyelinating (25%) patients. Mean disability score at the time of presentation was maximum for axonal pattern and the same group had minimum score at one month follow up indicating better recovery. Sequential electrophysiological changes were seen in this study. Axonal pattern had better recovery (77.78%) than demyelinating and mixed was worst with 16.67% mortality. Conclusions: Mixed pattern is predominant pattern on electrophysiological studies. Axonal pattern has better recovery. Secondary changes of electrophysiological finding in some of our cases suggest that primary demyelinating and mixed subtype could, be misinterpreted as primary axonal pathology without timely serial studies.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 06:42:58 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232944
Screening of cancer cervix: Pap smear in rural India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231645 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology
Parimala A., Nidhi Sharma, Jayashree K. Srinivasan.
Background: The incidence of cervical premalignant lesions in rural India is likely to be high due to presence of several risk factors like early marriage, early coitarche and multiparity. Hence prospective cross sectional study was conducted to find the incidence of pre-invasive state and cancer of cervix in women between the age group 30 and 60 years, visiting Thirumazhisai health centre by Pap’s smear method. Methods: Cervical mucosa is scraped, using Ayre spatula a 360° turn is made at the transition zone and smeared on a slide and papanicolaou stain is applied and the slide is examined under microscope. If Pap’s smear confirms low/high grade lesion, biospy is done to confirm the finding. The result is analysed for pre-invasive state. Results: Out of the cases (107) examined with in the study period, 36.45% were normal. Out of the rest 47.05% had an inflammatory smear, 14.7% had active bacterial infection, 17.65% had active candida infection and 5.88% had high-grade intraepithelial lesion (CIN 3). Conclusions: The incidence of high-grade lesion for cervical cancer is high among the rural population and they are susceptible to develop the cancer. Regular screening for cancer of uterine cervix is of need among people of lower socio economic status. Awareness should be created on cervical cancer and its complications.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 06:22:12 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231645
Microbes causing severe neonatal septicemia in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=230297 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Abdelmoneim Khashana.
Neonatal sepsis is the most challenging neonatal disease in developing countries despite the progress in the neonatal management. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the most common organisms causing severe neonatal sepsis in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. The study conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) unit of pediatric department in Suez Canal University Hospital in the period from December 2013 to November 2014.Blood cultures showed the growth of Escherichia coli (40 %), Staphylococcus aureus (27 %), Klebsiella (20 %), and Pseudomonas (13 %). Escherichia coli is the most common quarantine in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 06:10:44 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=230297
A study to assess the association of maternal factors and the outcome of pregnancy among mothers delivering in a tertiary care hospital in Haryana, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232934 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Shveta Saini, Mukhmohit Singh, Anshu Mittal.
Background: Low birth weight is a major cause of infant mortality and is considered as a sensitive index of the nation’s health and development. World Health Organization (WHO) defines low birth weight (LBW) as weight at birth of less than 2,500 grams (up to and including 2499 grams) irrespective of the gestational age. LBW is the leading cause of neonatal and postnatal deaths and as such it remains a worldwide issue and one of the most important public health problems, particularly in developing countries. The objectives of the study were to study the outcome of pregnancy whether normal, low birth weight, or still-birth, and to study the association of maternal risk factors- haemoglobin level, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and outcome of pregnancy. Methods: It was a cross sectional study carried out among the pregnant females delivering in MM Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Haryana, India from January 2010 to December 2010. A total of 500 cases were interviewed for the study purpose by systematic random sampling, using a semi structured pretested questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS17 software. Results: Outcomes of pregnancy recorded were 28.8% low birth weight, 5.4% stillbirth and 65.8% normal birth weight. The mean birth weight was recorded as 2.556±0.411kgs. The incidence of LBW was maximum (54.3%) among the mothers who did not seek ANC while it was minimum (12.7%) in the ones who had sought ANC for more than 3 times. 57.6% mothers were anaemic and severe anaemia in 1.4% contributed towards more number of stillbirths and LBW infants (57.14% and 42.86% respectively). 4.2% mothers were found to be suffering from pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). 69.41% of the mothers with any infection had delivered a low birth weight baby and 4.70% had a stillborn baby. Conclusions: The present study confirms birth weight as an important determinant of neonatal and post-neonatal outcomes.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 05:51:10 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232934
Effect of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in preterm and small for gestational age babies in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232724 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Smitha D’Sa, Deepak Pinto, Anousha, B. S. Baliga.
Background: Neonatal mortality is an increasingly important public health issue in developing countries. Low birth weight is the single most important factor affecting neonatal mortality. Globally low birth weight accounts for 10% of neonatal mortality. The purpose of our study was to find out the impact of low birth weight on neonatal mortality and its effect on preterm and small for gestational age babies in a tertiary care center in India. Methods: 173 consecutive, low birth weight neonates weighing less than 2.5 kilograms referred to a tertiary care center over a period of one year were included. Age, gender, gestational age, birth weight, comorbid conditions and clinical outcome were recorded prospectively. Neonates were divided into two groups. 83 preterm low birth weight neonates (
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 05:38:58 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232724
The effect of educational therapy on self-esteem and problem behaviors in children with specific learning disability http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=219208 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry
Nagihan Saday Duman, Özgür Öner, Ayla Soykan Aysev.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of educational therapy on the level of self-esteem and problem behaviors in children diagnosed with specific learning disability (SLD). Methods: A total of 150 children between 9-11 years of age were included in the study. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and SLD test battery was administered to all children who were diagnosed with SLD. Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 6-18) and Teacher’s Report Form were also used. The scales were administered again to children in the educational therapy group when the therapy was completed and to children in the control group after three months. Results: The level of self-esteem in children with a diagnosis of SLD was found to be lower than the normal developing children. Scores related to behavioral problems in CBCL 6-18 and TRF 6-18 were found higher in children with a diagnosis of SLD than the normal developing children. In the evaluations performed after the therapy, a significant difference was found in the SLD test battery scores of the children who were diagnosed with SLD and were administered educational therapy compared to the SLD test battery scores of those on the waiting list. In the evaluations performed after the educational therapy, an increase in the level of self-esteem and a decrease in problem behavior scores were found in the group that were diagnosed with SLD and received educational therapy. Discussion: Educational therapy was found to increase the level of self-esteem and to decrease behavioral problems and symptoms of SLD in children. However, other psychosocial factors are thought to play a role in children’s better detection themselves except improvement signs of SLD with education. More specific studies are needed on the impact of these factors.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 05:21:33 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=219208
Construction of an Algebraic Structure Using a Concatenation Map http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233999 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
A.I. Garba and J. Abubakar.
In this paper, modular arithmetic is used to construct an algebraic structure. Some algebraic and number theoretic properties of the structure are enumerated. The structure is then extended by embedding a special cycle into it. A concatenation map is then defined on the extended structure and it is discovered that the extended structure is an abelian group under the concatenation map.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 04:19:55 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233999
Prevalence and characteristics of impulse control disorders in a group of medical students http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233990 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry
Lut Tamam, Özlem Paltacı, Necla Keskin.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) among medical students and evaluate the related socio-demographic and clinical features. Methods: A total of 277 students in the fourth and fifth year of medical school were included in the study. The study was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012 in Çukurova University Medical School, Adana, Turkey. A demographic data form has been completed. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) was used to determine axis I psychiatric disorders. The prevalence rates of ICDs were investigated by using the modified version of the Minnesota Impulse Disorders Interview. All patients completed Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 11 (BIS-11) and Symptom Check List-90. Results: The lifetime prevalence of at least one ICD in our sample was 11.2% (n=31). When the participants with the diagnosis of ICDs not otherwise specified were excluded the prevalence rate decreased to 7.9%. The most common ICD was intermittent explosive disorder (6.1%), followed by trichotillomania (2.5%). History of suicide attempts was significantly higher in the group with ICD. There was statistically significant difference between comorbidity of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and a significant difference was observed in terms of total impulsivity, non-planning activity, and motor impulsivity scores as determined by BIS-11 between groups with or without ICDs. Conclusion: ICDs might be underdiagnosed in young adult populations. ICDs affect the quality of life, the course and outcome of comorbid disorders so it is important to ask for these disorders in regular psychiatric interviews and treating them in an appropriate and specific way.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 03:14:35 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233990
Phylogenetic analysis of some Newcastle disease virus isolates from the Sudan http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233988 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Open Veterinary Journal
N.A. Elmardi, M.A. Bakheit, A.I. Khalafalla.
A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify 1412 bp of the fusion protein gene (F gene) of four Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates; two velogenic (TY-1/90 and DIK-90) and two lentogenic isolates (Dongla 88/1 and GD.S.1). Following sequencing, nucleotide sequences were annotated and 894 bp were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in the Sudan and the virus strains published on the GenBank. It could be demonstrated that TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains belong to the genotype VI of NDV and are in close genetic relationship to sub- genotype VIb. TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains were observed to be genetically unrelated to the earlier Sudanese isolates of 1970/80s and the late of 2000s suggesting a different origin. The close genetic relationship to the European and African pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) suggests a common ancestor. Dongola, GD.S.1 strains were classified into genotype II that comprises non-pathogenic lentogenic NDV strains. The present genetic classification of NDV isolates of the Sudan provides valuable information on genotypes of NDV. Further molecular epidemiological investigations of the recent outbreaks of Newcastle disease in the Sudan are needed in order to improve the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 03:06:24 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233988
Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233986 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Open Veterinary Journal
A. Mariacher, F. Millanta, G. Guidi, S. Perrucci.
Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 03:04:09 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233986
Role of Vitamins and Cofactors in the Management of Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuromuscular Diseases http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233985 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
S.A. Balarabe, M.M. Watila.
Vitamins and cofactors are essential micronutrients required for various biochemical and physiological processes. Insufficient intake of vitamins and mineral components or inability to digest, assimilate, or utilize them are associated with a wide range of neuromuscular diseases such as Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged-Red Fibres(MERRF) and Kearns-Sayre Syndrome (KSS). Well defined conditions affecting nerve and/or muscle may occur as a result of deficiencies of vitamins and/or cofactors. Considerable headway has been made in genetics that has led to the identification of causative mutations in the previously undiagnosed or clinically complex hereditary disease conditions such as "Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), Brown-Vialetto-Laere 1 syndrome and Riboflavin-Responsive Multiple Acyl-coA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (RR-MADD)".Therefore, on the basis of antioxidant role of micronutrients in energy metabolism, it may be rational to consider use of vitamins as supplement to conventional treatments in nerve and muscle diseases. Recently, it has been shown that a subset of patients with these conditions responds to vitamin replacement therapy. This review focuses on vitamin/cofactor responsive conditions affecting nerve and/or muscle. Databases of Google Scholar, Web of Science, PubMed, and Embase were searched for relevant studies with vitamin/cofactor responsive conditions affecting nerve and/or muscle. All relevant human and animal studies were included.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 03:03:24 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233985
Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus): morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233984 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Open Veterinary Journal
S. Ohfuji.
Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 03:01:49 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233984
Expression, purification and immunochemical characterization of recombinant OMP28 protein of Brucella species http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233981 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Open Veterinary Journal
Y. Manat, A.V. Shustov, E. Evtehova, S.Z. Eskendirova.
Brucellosis is the lion’s share of infectious disease of animals and it has a particular socio-economic importance for the Republic of Kazakhstan. Sixty percent of epizootic outbreaks of brucellosis identified in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) originated from Kazakhstan in recent years. Definitive diagnosis of brucellosis remains a difficult task. Precisely for this reason, we evaluated a purified recombinant out membrane protein 28 (rOMP28) of Brucella species (Brucella spp.) produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a diagnostic antigen in an Indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) for bovine brucellosis. The gene encoding OMP28 was synthesized using a two-round PCR procedure. In order to produce the rOMP28, the de novo synthesized DNA was cloned into the expression vector pET-22b(+). Then, the rOMP28 was expressed in E. coli system and characterized in the present study. We further estimated the diagnostic potential of purified rOMP28 of Brucella spp. for screening bovine sera. To determine if rOMP28 has a valuable benefit for use in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, rOMP28-based I-ELISA was performed. Brucella spp. positive (n=62) and Brucella spp. negative (n=28) samples from tube agglutination test (TAT) were positive (n=59) and negative (n=27) by I-ELISA, respectively. These findings show that the rOMP28 of Brucella spp. could be a good candidate for improving serological diagnostic methods for bovine brucellosis.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 02:58:59 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233981
A case of Fahr’s Syndrome presenting with psychotic depression and seizure http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233980 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry
Özlem Uzunkaya Ethemoğlu, Sedat Yasin, İbrahim Fatih Karababa, Özcan Kocatürk.
Fahr’s Syndrome is rarely occurring neuropsychiatric disease which is characterized by symmetric calcifications of basal ganglia. It was described for the first time by Fahr in 1930. Although, the most common symptoms are extrapyramidal system signs, Fahr syndrome might also present with seizure, dementia and psychiatric symptoms. Treatment is symptomatic. We report a case of Fahr Syndrome presented by generalized tonic clonic seizure and psychotic depression.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 02:56:15 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233980
Identification of a Forensically and Medically Important Blowfly: A Case Study of Adult Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) in TurkeyIdentification of Adult Calliphora vicina http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=223264 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: European Journal of Forensic Sciences
Halide Nihal ACIKGOZ, Duygu DIVRAK, Meriem TALEB.
Background: Blowflies are a group of species which belong to Calliphoridae family, and they often colonize human and animal corpses. Being the first species to settle on cadavers, they have become of great forensic importance. They lay their eggs on corpses and play a crucial role in the decomposition process. Many species of blowflies appear globally while some of them live in certain regions. Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) is a species which is common in Turkey as well as in the rest of the world. Aim: The aim of this study is to summarize the morphological features of C. vicina adults from Turkey so that they can easily be used by non-specialists including the police and forensic teams. Material and Methods: The specimens were collected using liver traps. The flies colonizing the traps were killed by thiamethoxam. The dead specimens were collected, identified, and photographed.However, morphological features of the adult species were evaluated using different keys. Results: The key was created for the purpose of easy identification of this fly in Turkey. Conclusion: Calliphora vicina is cosmopolitan. In this study, there was no significant difference in the morphological characteristics of C. vicina species between specimens from Turkey and those from Europe.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 01:52:36 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=223264
Invasive Carcinoma of Breast with Adnexal Differentiation of Trichoblastic Type http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=216834 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology
Sarala Ravindran, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Joshua Mohanraj Daniel, Yip Cheng Har.
We present a rare distinctive variant of invasive carcinoma of breast characterized by adnexal differentiation of tumor of trichoblastic type. The neoplasm was identified in a mastectomy specimen from an 83-year-old Chinese woman. Morphologically, the trichoblastic differentiation was characterized by the formation of solid sheets and nests of basaloid cells. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 5/6, BER-EP4, bcl-2, and β-catenin. Stromal cells were positive for CD10. The tumor cells exhibited a “triple negative” profile; the nuclei did not react with antibodies to estrogen and progesterone receptors but failed to show overexpression of the HER2/neu protein. The MIB-1 labeling index averaged 20%. It is hoped that this case increases awareness for this unique morphological variant of invasive ductal carcinoma.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 00:33:19 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=216834
CMV endometritis in a non- immunosuppressed patient presenting as recurrent pyometra- A case report http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=222467 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology
Dr. Geetha Vasudevan, Dr Pavithra Prabhakar, Dr. Shephali Sharma.
Cytomegalovirus infection of the female genital tract is a rare entity. We present a case of 70 year old woman who came with recurrent pyometra, but was otherwise in good health. Hysterectomy was done and the endometrium showed occasional stromal cells with karyomegaly and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusions consistent with cytomegaloviral infection and dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. This was an incidental finding in an otherwise immunocompetent nonpregnant woman, hence being reported for its rarity and uncommon presentation. Keywords: cytomegalovirus, inclusions, endometrium.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 00:33:19 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=222467
Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: An update http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=224111 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology
Bulent Kurt, Serdar Tasdemir, Ertugrul Celik, Kemal Inan.
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a heterogeneous group of disease with complex clinical features. It has been sub-classified as: (1) Dermatomyositis, (2) Polymyositis, and (3) Inclusion body myositis (IBM). Nowadays, there are some studies in literature suggest necrotizing autoimmune myopathy and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy should also be added to this group of disease. There is a debate in the diagnosis of IIMs and up until now, about 12 criteria systems have been proposed. Some of the criteria systems have been used widely such as Griggs et al.’s proposal for IBM. Clinical findings, autoantibodies, enzymes, electrophysiological, and muscle biopsy findings are diagnostic tools. Because of diseases’ complexity, none of the findings are diagnostic alone. In this study, we discussed the diagnostic criteria of IMMs and described detailed morphological features.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 00:33:19 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=224111
On The Use of Human Tissues in Research and Practice http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=226917 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology
Sergei V. Jargin.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 00:33:19 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=226917
Immunohistochemical Study of Prognostic Relevance of Nestin and Survivin Expression in Astrocytic glioma http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=222145 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology
Aziza E. Abdelrahman, Hesham R. Abdel-Aziz, Abdelmonem A. Hegazy, Abdel-Motaleb Mohamed.
Background: Identification of the cellular origin of astrocytic gliomas is a step for improving the treatment strategies. Tumor stem cells have been detected in different neoplasms and have a major role in tumor initiation, progression and therapy resistance. Objective: The study aimed to investigate the expression of nestin and survivin in different grades of astrocytic glioma as well as evaluation of their prognostic role in relation to other prognostic parameters. Methods: Immunohistochemical expressions of nestin and survivin were evaluated in 40 paraffin blocks of different grades of astrocytic glioma and correlated with other prognostic parameters. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. Results: The cases included 10 low grade, 12 anaplastic and 18 glioblastoma multiforme. There was a significant correlation between each of nestin and survivin with the histological grade of astrocytoma and tumor size (p < 0.001). Nestin was strongly correlated to survivin index (p < 0.001). The univariate analysis showed that high histological grade, high nestin score and high survivin index were significantly correlated with overall survival. Multivariate analysis for all investigated cases proved the independent prognostic significance of the nestin expression (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Nestin and survivin are adverse prognostic markers for astrocytic glioma that increase significantly with tumor progression and associated with poor overall survival. Therefore, nestin and survivin could be used to predict high risk group of astrocytoma with unfavorable outcome.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 00:32:42 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=222145
Characterization of the Blood Brain Barrier in Pediatric Central Nervous System Neoplasms http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=230722 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology
Christopher S Hong, Winson Ho, Martin G Piazza, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Zhengping Zhuang, John D Heiss.
Objective: The normal blood–brain barrier (BBB) is composed of tight junctions between endothelial cells and surrounding astrocyte foot processes. Breakdown of the physiological astrocyte-endothelial cell relationship occurs in adult metastatic and primary brain tumors. However, the astrocyte-endothelial cell relationship has not been studied in pediatric tumors. Materials and Methods: Utilizing specimens from cases of pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 5), medulloblastoma (n = 5), and low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (n = 1), immunofluorescence were performed using primary antibodies against CD31, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and aquaporin 4 (AQ4). Clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, operative, and histopathological findings were analyzed. Results: Strongly-enhancing areas of medulloblastoma exhibited complete BBB breakdown with sparse GFAP and AQ4 staining around CD31-positive vessels. Moderately enhancing regions of pilocytic astrocytomas exhibited regions of intact BBB and vasculature surrounded by dense GFAP staining but reduced and disorganized AQ4 staining, suggesting tumor cells could not fulfill physiological BBB support. Non-enhancing low-grade diffuse astrocytoma demonstrated intact BBB with intense peri-microvasculature GFAP and AQ4 staining. AQ4 stained so strongly that AQ4 visualization alone delineated CD31-positive vessels. Conclusion: Taken together, BBB breakdown in pediatric tumors corresponds to a loss of normal endothelial cell-astrocyte foot process relationships. Further development of pharmaceutical agents capitalizing on this disrupted BBB is warranted in medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma. However, BBB integrity remains a challenge in treating low-grade diffuse astrocytoma before progression toward secondary glioblastoma.
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 00:32:42 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=230722
Effects of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on Epidermal Wound Healing in Domestic Rabbit http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=203021 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Abayomi Kayode Olaifa.
ABSTRACT A study was undertaken to assess the healing properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on epidermal wounds in rabbits. Twelve adult rabbits were divided into two equal groups of six. A pair of wound measuring 2cm x 2cm each was created on each rabbit. The wound on the rabbits in the experimental group were treated with Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extracts while those in the control group were cleaned with distilled water daily. Wound contraction was measured daily with days 5, 9 and 12 representing the inflammatory, proliferative and maturation phases of wound healing respectively. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 5, 9 and 12 for analysis. Moringa oleifera leaf extract-treated animals had faster rates of wound contraction and healing with shorter days of scab fall off within 7 days; increases in packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts (P
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Mon, 27 Jun 2016 00:13:24 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=203021
BREAKDOWN IN PERIPHERAL IMMUNE TOLERANCE IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES MELLITUS http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=208400 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology
Alex Kamyshny, Denis Putilin, Vita Kamyshna.
BREAKDOWN IN PERIPHERAL IMMUNE TOLERANCE IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES MELLITUS A.M.Kamyshnyi, D.A.Putilin, V.A.Kamyshna Zaporozhye State Medical University Abstract: We studied to determine the effect of the levels of Deaf1 mRNA expression on the nature of Foxp3+ Treg cells differentiation during experimental STZ-induced diabetes mellitus (EDM) in rats PLN. To determine the level of Deaf1 mRNA expression was performed RT-PCR in real-time by thermocycler CFX96™ Real-Time PCR Detection Systems. The Foxp3+-immunopositive lymphocytes were determined using an indirect immunofluorescence technique with using a monoclonal rat antibody. We established that development of EDM was accompanied by decreased the expression levels of the transcriptional regulator Deaf1 4,2‐fold in rats PLN with 3-week EDM and 2,5‐fold in rats with 5-week EDM. Reduced Deaf1 mRNA expression during EDM associated with an decreased of total amount of Treg in the PLN, led to changes of distribution into individual classes of FoxP3+ lymphocytes and FoxP3 concentration in immunopositive cells. Key words: experimental diabetes mellitus; deformed autoregulatory factor 1 (Deaf1); Foxp3; Treg.
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Sun, 26 Jun 2016 15:28:28 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=208400
Comparison of knowledge and practice of current infant feeding options among HIV-positive mothers in urban and rural communities in Anambra State, Nigeria http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=225718 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Lawson Nwokedi Igbokwe, Elias Chikee Aniwada, Nwachinemere Uleanya, Benjamin Uzochukwu.
Objectives This was to compare the knowledge and practice of current infant feeding options among HIV-positive mothers in urban and rural communities in Anambra State, Nigeria Methods It was a comparative cross-sectional study involving HIV-positive mothers from rural and urban communities, whose babies were HIV- negative, and < 2 years. Data was collected using questionnaires and Focused Group Discussion (FGD) guide. Respondents were selected by systematic sampling method. Level of significance at ≤ 0.05 Results Knowledge on currently recommended infant feeding options for HIV-positive mothers was generally poor as only 60(26.7%) and 82(36.4%) of the rural and urban respondents respectively had good knowledge (p = 0.081). Infant feeding practice was significantly different between the two communities (P= 0.001). Exclusive breast feeding was practiced by 88(39.1%) urban and 122(54.2%) of the rural dwellers (p = 0.001). There were significant associations between education and knowledge on current infant feeding practice in both urban (χ2 = 16.5, p < 0.001) and rural (χ2 = 21.4, p < 0.001) communities. The FGD collaborated the disparity in infant feeding practice. For urban dwellers, the reason for their inability to carry out 6 months of exclusive formula feeding was poverty while “duty calls” was main reason for those that breastfed. Conclusions There is poor knowledge on current infant feeding options for HIV-positive mothers, and it is yet not being practiced which is not good for Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Education is a predictor of good knowledge on current infant feeding practice in both communities.
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Sun, 26 Jun 2016 07:16:47 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=225718
Study of analgesic effect of amiloride compared to aspirin in chemically induced pain models in rats and mice http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232137 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Bhanu Prakash Kolasani, Raghunatha Rao Ponnaluri, Raghunandan Mudium.
Background: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) contribute to acid-evoked pain in many painful inflammatory and ischemic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiac ischemia, and exhausted skeletal muscles, which are accompanied by local tissue acidosis. Amiloride, a potassium-sparing diuretic was recently discovered to be a blocker of these ASIC. Aims and Objectives: The objective of present study is to evaluate the analgesic activity of amiloride in chemically induced pain models of rats and mice and compare it against the standard analgesic aspirin. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 mice and 24 rats were distributed into four groups of 6 each: Group A received distilled water as control, Group B received the test drug amiloride - low dose (20 mg/kg), Group C received amiloride-high dose (40 mg/kg), and Group D received standard drug aspirin (25 mg/kg); all drugs were given intraperitoneally. In formalin test, 0.025 ml of 1% formalin was injected under the plantar surface of hind paw and the mean time of paw licking (MTPL) was measured in both early (0-5 min) as well as late (20-40 min) phase. In acetic acidinduced writhing test, the animals were injected with 1 ml/100 g body weight of 0.6% acetic acid i.p. The number of writhings produced was recorded over a period of 20 min. Results: In the early phase of formalin test, the MTPL was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in Group B (30.2%) and in Group C (59.1%) and highly significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in Group D (74.6%) in mice, whereas in rats there was a significant reduction in MTPL in Group B (48.4%) only and a highly significant reduction was observed in both Group C (62.8%) and Group D (76.9%). In the late phase, in both mice and rats, there was a highly significant reduction in MTPL in all the 3 groups. In writhing test, the number of writhes have been reduced significantly from 51.17 ± 3.28 (mean ± standard error of mean) in Group A to 32.33 ± 3.67 in Group B and to 26.16 ± 3.98 in Group C and highly significantly to 12.17 ± 2.52 in Group D. Conclusion: Amiloride showed a comparable but lower analgesic activity than aspirin in chemically induced pain models in rats and mice.
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Sun, 26 Jun 2016 00:36:35 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232137
Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=229767 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Ramesh Pothuraju, Raj Kumar Sharma, Sarver Ahmed Rather, Satvinder Singh.
Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. Materials and Methods: At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. Results: At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decrease in the plasma glucose and lipid levels in HFD fed mice. In addition, increased in the epididymal fat (E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on GS administration alone. Finally, quantitative mRNA expression analysis of adiponectin gene was significantly up-regulated in AV supplementation. Further, no effect was observed with the both herbs on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) in the E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. Conclusions: The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract.
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 14:01:20 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=229767
Treatment of haemorrhoids with individualized homoeopathy: an open observational pilot study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=224006 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Kaushik Deb Das, Shubhamoy Ghosh, Asim Kumar Das, Aloke Ghosh, Ramkumar Mondal, Tanapa Banerjee, Seikh Sajid Ali, Seikh Swaif Ali, Munmun Koley, Subhranil Saha.
Aim: Controversies and disagreement exist on conventional treatment strategies of haemorrhoids due to relapse, inefficacy, and complications. We intend to evaluate role of individualized homoeopathic treatment in haemorrhoids. Methods: In this prospective, open, observational trial, haemorrhoids patients were treated using 5 standardized scales measuring complaints severity and anoscopic score. It was conducted at two homoeopathic hospitals in India during mid-July 2014 to mid-July 2015. Patients were intervened as per individualized homoeopathic principles and followed up every month up to 6 months. Results: Total 73 were screened, 52 enrolled, 38 completed, 14 dropped out. Intention to treat population (n=52) was analyzed in the end. Statistically significant reductions of mean bleeding [month 3: -21.8, 95% CI -30.3, -13.3, P
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 14:00:41 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=224006
DNA Protective Effect of Ginseng and the Antagonistic Effect of Chinese Turnip: A Supplementation Study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=217578 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Yim Tong Szeto, Kam Shing Wong, Andrea Han, Sok Cheon Pak, Wouter Kalle.
Aim: In the current study, commercial ginseng extract would be used for supplementing volunteers. DNA protective activity on human lymphocytes mediated by ginseng would be compared with or without the presence of Chinese turnip. Methods: Seven healthy subjects (4 males & 3 females from 37-60 years) after overnight fasting gave 2 mL of blood. Content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water was then ingested and the subject remained fasting for 2 hours until the second blood sample taken. The subjects were arranged to participate the second part of the experiment with at least 2 weeks apart. The subject ingested the same amount of ginseng extract with a piece of cooked turnip (10 grams). The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for evaluation of DNA damage of lymphocyte with or without oxidative stress. Results: For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for H2O2 treatment over the 2 hours period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H2O2 treatment and PBS treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H2O2 effectively but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. Conclusion: Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection.
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 14:00:02 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=217578
Analysis of the Substance Scanning Test Results of Non- Alcohol Substance Abusers Who Admitted an University Hospital http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=220543 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Bağımlılık Dergisi - Journal of Dependence
Aslıhan Okan, Abdullah Atli, Cafer Alhan, Süleyman Demir, Mehmet Cemal Kaya, Aytekin Sır.
Background: Urine toxicological analysis is one of the important procedures as rapidly investigate for the identifies substance use, including initial diagnosis, with treatment plan for substance abusers and compliance with treatment. Toxicological analysis for legal purposes primarily aims to detect illegal or banned drug and substance use in a variety of situations. Diyarbakir is is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey and also most of the population who living in Diyarbakir tended to be poor and middle socioeconomic levels.The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of toxicological analysis of patients who admitted to our department of psychiatry that prediagnosis of non-alcohol substance use. Method: A retrospective study including the 167 patients who voluntarily admitted to outpatient psychiatry department of Dicle Medicine Faculty, from January to December 2014. Files of each one participants were carefully analyzed by the experienced researchers. Results: Of 167 participants enrolled in the study who attempted for the prediagnosis of non-alcohol substance abuse. In all, 12.0 % (n=20) were female, and 88.0 % (n=147) were male. 44.9 % of patients (n=75) were urine positive whereas the 55.1% of patients (n=92) were urine negative for substance use on admission to hospital. The most common substance abuse was Marijuana (88%,n:66) followed by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (18.6%,n=14), Methamphetamine (Meth) (16.0%,n=12), opioids (5.3%, n:4), Barbiturates (4.0%,n:3) and Phencyclidine (PCP) (2.7%, n:2), respectively. Two female were using to marihuana, and another one was using to MDMA-Meth. We showed here that 37.3% of patients were using together with great number of substance, whereas the 62.7% of patients were using only one substance. Also, the ranges of one substance abuse were found Marijuana 43.0%, Meth 2.0%, Barbiturates 1.0% and 1.0 % MDMA ,at the same time. Discussion and Conclusion: We found here the rates of not using of substance among the participants was 55.1%, according to toxicological analysis. In this case may be explained that a portion of patients were successfully treated or pay close attention of parents about to substance abuse. The most common substance abuse was Marijuana. On the other hand, other substances whit stimulant effect were among the commonly used substances, including the Meth, amphetamine, phencylidine, barbiturates, opioid and its derivatives. As clearly shown in our study that solely exclusively environmental factors, including the poor social and economic factors with adverse learning conditions can not explain the increases in Marijuana abuse and growing dependence prevalence numerous environmental factors, may have affected this growing rates. With regard to putative economic factors, there is a clear need for additional studies to ascertain how changes in alcoholic beverage prices, taxes, and availability affect the prevalence of alcohol use disorders among race-ethnic and other subgroups of the population. As a result, substance abuse is an important public health problem. Its should be remembered that increasing usage rates of substance may have be related to easy access to it. Unfortunately, our region is carries a significant risk in terms of the substance abuse. In light of these results, protective measures related to use of the substances should be increased in no time besides the emergency health care needs in Diyarbakir. On the other hand, Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment and Training Center (AMATEM) should be established in our region.
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 11:51:29 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=220543
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LEVEL OF LONELINESS AND INTERNET ADDICTION BASED ON THE PURPOSE OF USING SOCIAL NETWORKS BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=218912 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Bağımlılık Dergisi - Journal of Dependence
Özden Yalçınkaya Alkar, Furkan Bardak.
This study is aim to analyze the relation between the level of loneliness and the addiction of internet based on the purpose of using social networks by university students and the differences based on changes of gender. Totally, there are 348 university students in Ankara who play a part az samples in the study. In the study, the population of males is 144, of females is 204. The dates are collected from demographic information from, internet addiction scal, scale of the goals of social network using, UCLA loneliness scale. The dates are analyzed by using SPSS-20 programme whit the help of t-cross section and regression groups which are objective. The results showed that using social networks with the aims of communation and interaction, familiarisation and winnig fame, and aducation have on effect on internet addiction, with the aims of familiarisation and winning fame have on effect on loneliness. The results indicated that men's level of loneliness and internet addiction are higher than womens' and women we the internet for education with a higher level than men, while menuse it for familiarisation and winning fame.
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 11:51:18 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=218912
INVESTIGATION OF TREATMENT MOTIVATION IN ALCOHOL-DEPENDENT PERSONS FOLLOWED BY A RECOVERY MODEL: A CONTROLLED STUDY http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=209451 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Bağımlılık Dergisi - Journal of Dependence
Ayşegül Savaşan, Olcay Çam.
Objective:The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the psychiatric nursing approach based on the Tidal Model on motivation for treatment in alcohol-dependent persons. Method:The study was semi-experimental in design, with pre-test post-test evaluation and a control group, and was conducted on 36 individuals (18 experimental, 18 control). The Treatment Motivation Questionnaire(TMQ), The Addiction Profile Index(BAPI), Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI) were applied before and three months after the application. Results:At the end of the three month follow up, alcohol use by individuals in the experimental group was found to be less than that of the control group. Individuals in the experimental group who was at the maintenance stage were found to be more than the control group.The BAPI craving subscale point decreased in the experimental group; increased in the control group. It was found that internalized and external motivation, interpersonal-help-seeking and total motivation of the experimental group decreased or remained the same and confidence-in-treatment of them increased at the end of three months; but the difference was not significant. Internalized motivation in the control group was a significant reduction; when compared with the experimental group, the difference in change between the two groups was found not to be significant. Conclusion:The psychiatric nursing approach based on the Tidal Model may have prevented a significant reduction in especially internalized motivation of the experimental group. It is recommended that follow-up studies did to prevent relapse and randomized controlled studies conducted with regard to the most frequently seen problems of alcohol-dependent persons.
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 11:50:07 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=209451
Editorial http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233843 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Bağımlılık Dergisi - Journal of Dependence
Ayhan Kalyoncu.

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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 11:46:07 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233843
Heyde's syndrome: association between severe aortic stenosis and anemia http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233841 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Cukurova Medical Journal
Koutsampasopoulos Konstantinos, Ioannis Vogiatzis.

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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 10:49:20 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233841
Transmesenteric hernia presenting as acute abdomen in a pediatric patient http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=228205 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Case Study and Case Report
Debabrata Das, Dhrubajyoti Maulik, Subuddha Chatterjee, Dev Vrat Singh, Arghya Choudhuri.
A 10 years old male presented with acute onset progressive abdominal pain and bilious vomiting for 2 days, abdominal distension and absolute constipation for last 1 day. Pain started at periumbilical region and then became diffuse. At first pain was intermittent and colicky, later became dull aching and constant. Patient had associated 10-12 episodes of projectile bilious vomiting for last 2 days. There was no past H/O any surgery or chronic illness. On general survey patient was dehydrated and had tachycardia and tachypnoea. On abdominal examination there was abdominal distension, less abdominal movement with respiration, visible peristalsis at epigastric and umbilical region. Hernial orifices were normal. Guarding, generalised tenderness and rebound tenderness was present, hyperperistaltic sound was present. Investigations revealed leucocytosis, straight X-ray abdomen showed multiple air fluid level in central part of abdomen. Patient was resuscitated with IV fluids and exploratory laparotomy was performed. On exploration strangulated jejunum(of 15cm length) was seen 50cm distal to DJ flexure which was seen herniated through a round mesenteric defect (approximated 5cm diameter) adjacent to the strangulated segment. Portion of the gut was gangrenous and non viable.Resection of the affected part of jejunum with end to end jejunojejunal anastomosis done in interrupted single layer extramucosal technique with polyglycolic 3-0.Mesenteric defect was closed. Post - operative recovery was uneventful.
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 06:46:10 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=228205
Testicular morphometry, Sperm Characteristics and Viscera Organ Weights of Rabbits following the Administration of Aqueous Extract of Gmelina arborea Leaves http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=225656 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Adakole Hyacinth Abu, Terzungwe Ahemen, Haaga E..
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of aqueous Gmelina arborea leaf extract on testicular morphometry, cauda epididymal sperm characteristics and organ weights of male rabbits. Thirty two (32) rabbit bucks, aged 9-11 weeks with an average weight of 1300g, were randomly allocated to four treatments comprising of varying concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600ml of extract per liter of water) of Gmelina arborea leaf. Each treatment consisting of 8 animals per group was replicated 8 times with one animal per replicate. Animals were fed aqueous Gmelina arborea leaf extracts for a period of fourteen (14) weeks. At the end of the experimental trial, the bucks were sacrificed and testicular morphometry; caudal epididymal sperm characteristics and viscera organ weights were evaluated. The results showed significant (P
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 04:32:44 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=225656
SURVEY ON PERIPHYTIC FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA AND ALGAE IN THE SULTANATE OF OMAN http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233796 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Egyptian Journal of Phycology
Ahmed A. El-Awamri, Adel F. Hamed.
During the period of February 2004 to April 2005, 74 samples from various forms of algal vegetations were collected from different periphytic freshwater habitats in Sultanate of Oman. These habitats include water streams of Aflaj systems, springs, wadis and rocky mountain regions of El-Dakhilia, Al-Dhahirah, Al-Batinah, Al-Sharquyah, and Muscat. Thirty cyanobacterial taxa were identified based on their morphological characteristics. Distribution analysis of the cyanobacterial flora in correlation with the studied areas obviously emphasized that the locality of Al-Taeen was the richest site, while localities of Bahla, Al-Hamra, Wadi Al-Moudin, Wadi Tanouf in Nazwa were the poorest sites by the diversified cyanobacterial flora. The microscopic identification of the natural assemblages of the biotopes of the studied localities indicated the presence of seventeen taxa of chlorophytes. The autecology of green algae revealed that the appearance and existence of rhizobenthic Chara canescens and the unbranched filaments of Rhizoclonium heiroglyphieum strongly confirmed the hardness of water habitats of Jalan area in Al-Sharquyah. On the other hand, water habitats of Nazwa area were found to be the suitable environments favoring the growth and dominancy of freshwater periphytic chlorophytes. Fifteen diatom taxa were identified from the investigated localities. The autecology of the identified diatom taxa of oligohalobien type (indicators for freshwater habitats), except Biddulphia laevis and Achnanthes brevipes var. intermedia of mesohalobien type of salinity. This observation added strength conformity for the hardness of water of Jalan locality.
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 00:42:05 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233796
BIOSORPTION OF CD2+, CU2+, NI2+, ZN2+ AND CR6+ CATIONS BY GREEN ALGA <i>SCENDESMUS OBLIQUUS</i> http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233795 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Egyptian Journal of Phycology
Alia A. El-Shimy.
Experiments were conducted comparing the individual removals of cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc and chromium from water via biosorption using Scendesmus obliquus, a common green alga. The goal was to characterize the biological treatment of water contaminated with heavy metals using life aquatic species and the effect of different concentrations of these metals on chlorophyll a content. In addition, experiments were performed to measure cell viability as a function of metal concentration and also to compare removal using living cells to nonliving ones. The data indicate that both living and nonliving cells of Scendesmus obliquus removed nearly all heavy metals from water, living alga cells significantly outperformed nonliving one in case of Cd metal removal. The alga exhibited high uptake capacities for five metal ions. Maximum Cr (VI) removal reached around 97%, Cu (II) removal was at its maximum value which reached 98.5 % of its original initial concentration, as for Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II), similar removal ratios were obtained ranging between 88% and 99.4% .
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 00:39:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233795
RESPONSE OF MICRO ALGAE TO WATER TREATMENT OPERATION http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233794 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Egyptian Journal of Phycology
Azza M. Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A. El-Dib.
Algal population of Nile River water is mainly composed of diatoms, green and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). Percentage composition of algal species was in order diatoms > green algae > cyanobacteria. The conventional water treatment operations lead to the average removal of algae in the ratio of 92 %, 87%, and 77% for diatoms, green and cyanobacteria, respectively. Algal composition of the treated water was subjected to a wide variation after sedimentation and sand filtration. A relative increase in the percentage composition of green algae and cyanobacteria was recorded. Change in algal composition after water treatment operations reflects the wide variation in algal structure and their community.
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 00:35:36 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233794
METAL LEVELS IN COMMON SEAWEEDS FROM SUEZ BAY http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233793 2016-06-27T15-03-06Z
Source: Egyptian Journal of Phycology
Islam M. El-Manawy , Wagdy M. El-Sarraf , Fikry A. Mourad .
Metal levels (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni and Zn) were determined in water and 24 species of seaweeds at 8 sites on Suez Bay close to the industrial and urban zone, from March 1998 through February 1999. The seaweeds of the Suez Bay contribute competently for elimination of trace metals from the water. The levels of metal in seawater were between 0.105 ppb for chromium and 20.76 ppb for zinc. In seaweed species, the levels were between 1.93 ppm for chromium and 1528.89 ppm for iron. Many species have high capacity for absorption of certain metals, making them good bioremediators. At the forefront, Cladophoropsis zollingeri (Chlorophyta) accumulated Cr, Fe, and Mn at 70, 112, and 306 times their levels in seawater. For Cd, Co, and Pb, calcareous algae such as Jania rubens, Halimeda tuna, and Galaxaura oblongata are good bioremediators. They accumulated 29, 32, and 34 times the levels measured in seawater.
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Sat, 25 Jun 2016 00:32:42 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233793