ScopeMed - RSShttp://www.scopemed.orgScopeMed RSSen-us Copyright © 2011 ScopeMed All rights reserved. ScopeMedhttp://www.scopemed.org/img/logo-scopemed-ttk.gifhttp://www.scopemed.org 2016-07-30T02-10-22Z ECTOPARASITIC PROTOZOA SCYPHIDIANS, AMPHILEPTIDS AND TETRAHYMENID FROM THE NILE PERCH, LATES NILOTICUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) IN THE DAKAHLIA PROVINCE, EGYPT http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=237721 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: THE EGYPTIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY (Zoology)
Sayed A.M. El-Tantawy, Ahmed Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed F. Abou El-Nour, Alaa Samn, Fayez Shaldoum, Islam Rady.
Sixty-one of Nile perch, Lates niloticus collected from Damietta branch of River Nile at Dakahlia Province from January 2012 to February 2013 were macro–and microscopically examined for the presence of ectoparasitic protozoa. Fifty-two fish specimens (85.2%) were found to be natural hosts of nine ciliates: six species of scyphidians; Ambiphyra ameiuri, Ambiphyra sp., Scyphidia globularis, S. doliaris, Scyphidia mansouriensis n. sp. and Scyphidia sp.; two of amphileptids; Amphileptus niloticus n. sp. and Amphileptus sp. and only one tetrahymenid; Tetrahymena sp. All parasites were recorded for the first time from the host Lates niloticus in Egypt. Scyphidia globularis and S. doliaris were not recorded before from any fish kind in Egypt. Furthermore, Amphileptus niloticus and Scyphidia mansouriensis were described as two new species. Detailed descriptions of all parasites were presented.
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 16:45:05 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=237721
DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN SOME SPECIES OF ZYGOPHYLLACEAE BASED ON SEM AND START CODON TARGETED (SCOT) MARKERS http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=237702 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: THE EGYPTIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY (Botany)
Mohamed M. Moawed, Shafik D. Ibrahim.
Zygophyllaceae is a heterogeneous family composed of approximately 285 species belonging to 22 genera. Delimitation of taxa within the family has repeatedly changed over time. The objective of the present study aims to characterize and discriminate 17 taxa belonging to 13 species and 5 genera of Zygophyllaceae; collected from different geographical localities in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The genera examined were Zygophyllum (represented by two species), Tribulus (two species), Fagonia (seven species), Peganum (one species) and Seetzenia (one species). Epidermal surface sculpture as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) assay were used in an attempt to discriminate between the examined taxa. SEM exposed some structure more clearly showing distinct aspects of some epidermal features. Start Codon Targeted assay were performed using ten primers and a total number of 146 bands were detected with 76.03% polymorphism. The relationship among the studied taxa based on combined analysis of variation in morphological characters and SCoT polymorphism were examined. The cluster analysis and distance tree were constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) of NTSYS-pc V. 2.0.
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 08:42:03 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=237702
An observational prospective study on prescribing pattern of drugs among pregnant women admitted in antenatal ward of a tertiary care teaching hospital in coastal town of South India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232999 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Prasanand Sasidharan, Bhanu Prakash Kolasani, Divyashanthi CM.
Background: Pharmacoepidemiological studies may provide an insight regarding the existing drug use pattern and in planning appropriate interventions to ensure rational drug therapy. Aims and Objectives: This study is aimed to evaluate the prescribing pattern of drugs among pregnant women admitted in antenatal ward of our hospital. Materials and Methods: An observational prospective study was conducted in 72 pregnant women for a period of 6 months. Each prescription was analyzed for demographic variables, various categories of drugs prescribed, individual drugs prescribed in that category, their dosage forms, the World Health Organization core prescribing indicators, and their teratogenic risk. Results: Overall 358 medications were prescribed among which vitamin and mineral supplements (57.26%) were the most commonly prescribed category followed by intravenous fluids (IVFs) (12.57%) and antiemetics (8.38%). Among vitamin and mineral supplements, folic acid (30.24%) was the most commonly prescribed drugs. Ringer lactate (46.67%) was the most commonly prescribed IVF. Ondansetron (66.67%) was the commonly prescribed antiemetics. Most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents were metronidazole and mebendazole (27.59% each), antiulcer drug was ranitidine (87.5%), analgesic was paracetamol (58.33%), and tetanus toxoid was the only vaccine prescribed. Majority of drugs (75.69%) were prescribed by generic name. Average number of drugs per prescription was 4.97. Percentages of encounters with antibiotic prescribed were 8.10%. The percentage of injections prescribed was 22.91% and that of drugs prescribed from the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) was 95.53%. Tablet (43.58%) was the common drug formulation. According to teratogenic risk, category B (56.25%) was highest. Conclusion: On the whole, vitamin and mineral supplements were the most commonly prescribed drugs in our study. Prescription by generic name was high, usage of antibiotics and injections was less, and nearly all drugs were prescribed from NLEM, which indicates rational prescription. Usage of category B drugs must be reduced, and complete avoidance of category D drugs is advised.
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 08:09:07 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232999
The effect of slow and fast musical tempo on post-exercise recovery on recovery period in young adults http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232607 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Priyanka Ramdas Rane, Jayashree V Gadkari.
Background: Music is a magical medium and powerful too, can be used to soothe and relax. Listening to music reduces muscular and mental tension and thereby decreases sympathetic stimulation and sustains motivation to resist mental and emotional fatigue, and it may even facilitate physical and athletic performance. Aims and Objectives: To determine the effectiveness on various parameters of listening to slow and fast music tempo during post-exercise recovery in young adults. Materials and Methods: The study procedure was carried out on 50 untrained participants of the age group between 18 and 25 years, at the tertiary health center. Each participant performed the Queen’s step test for 3 min. The recovery period of pulse rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure (BP) during post-exercise without music on the 1st day, with slow on the 2nd day, and fast music tempo on the 3rd day were recorded. The study was conducted in 3 visits. Results: The data analysis was done by SPSS-IS software. ANNOVA test was used for statistical analysis. The P < 0.05 was considered as significant. With slow music tempo, the mean recovery time for pulse rate (9.38 ± 1.47 min), systolic BP (8 ± 1.10 min), diastolic BP (7.32 ± 0.95 min), and respiratory rate (9.10 ± 1.39 min) was significantly faster than without music and fast music tempo. Conclusion: The heart rate, BP, and respiratory rate returned to baseline faster while listening to slow than fast music tempo. The present study concludes that music of slow tempo is a good tool for relaxation following a bout of physical exercise.
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 08:08:43 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232607
Association between glycemic control and intraocular pressure in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=235216 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Shikha Baisakhiya, Punita Garg, Surjit Singh.
Background: Diabetes mellitus is becoming an epidemic in our country and worldwide. It is an important risk factor for raised intraocular pressure (IOP). Raised IOP is associated with a potentially blinding condition known as glaucoma. Identification of factors, which increase the risk of glaucoma, is a mainstay in the early detection and prevention of blindness due to the disease. Aim and Objectives: To investigate the association between glycemic control and IOP in patients of Type II diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: The study included 180 participants. Group I included 80 age- and sexmatched normal healthy participants constituting the control group. Group II consisted of 100 diabetic patients. Group II was further subdivided into 3 subgroups according to glycemic control: Group IIA consisted of 36 patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes mellitus with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) levels 8% indicating poor glycemic control. The patients were investigated for fasting blood glucose levels, postprandial blood glucose levels, and HbA1C. All participants underwent routine ocular examination including IOP measurement by Goldmann applanation tonometer. Results: The mean IOP in fasting state was statistically significantly lower than IOP in postprandial state (P < 0.005). The mean IOP of patients of Group II was higher than Group I (P < 0.005). The mean IOP of group IIA ,IIB and IIC were 16.9±0.43 mm of Hg,17.6±0.62 mm of Hg and 18.62±0.22 mm of Hg respectively.. Patients with poor glycemic control had a higher IOP. The difference of IOP was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.005). Conclusion: The diabetic patients are prone to higher IOP, and especially, the patients with poor glycemic control were more prone to raised IOP. Diabetic patients should be regularly screened for IOP so that burden ocular morbidity due to glaucoma can be reduced.
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 08:08:20 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=235216
A comparative study of efficacy of intravenous dexmedetomidine and intravenous esmolol for attenuation of stress response during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=236767 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Hema B. Gupta, Sagar Vyas.
Background: The present study compares the effects of I.V. dexmedetomidine and I.V. esmolol on hemodynamic response occurring due to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation in elective general surgery. Methods: A total of 60 patients aged 18-60 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, either sex, scheduled for elective surgical procedures were included in this study. Patients were randomly allocated by chit method into two equal groups of 30 each, comprising of group dexmedetomidine (group D) 1 μg/kg diluted with 0.9% saline to 10 ml I.V. over 10min and group esmolol (group E) 1 mg/kg diluted with 0.9% saline to 10 ml I.V. given just before induction. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure were recorded at baseline, after 5 min of infusion, after induction and at 1, 3, 5 and 10 min after endotracheal intubation. Results: In group D, there was no statistically significant increase in HR and blood pressure after intubation at any time intervals, where as in group E, there was a statistically significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate after intubation at 1, 3, 5 and 10 min. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg is more effective than esmolol for attenuating the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation in elective surgical patients.
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 02:43:40 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=236767
Comparative utility of biochemical markers for differential diagnosis of ascites http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=236833 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Vyankatesh T. Anchinmane, Shilpa V. Sankhe.
Background: Ascites is pathological accumulation of free fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Appropriate management for ascites depends upon diagnosis of its etiology. Based on total protein concentration of ascitic fluid, earlier ascites was classified as transudate and exudate. The present study was designed to compare the utility of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) to categorise ascitic fluids as either exudate or transudate. Methods: This prospective study comprised of 110 adult patients with ascites whose diagnosis was established by clinical examination and appropriate investigations. Biochemical analysis of ascitic fluid and serum was done with protein, albumin and LDH. The usefulness of each biochemical parameters was statistically evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV. Results: In this endeavour, the SAAG and fluid LDH did showed a clear advantage over the fluid protein which is traditional existing biochemical parameter for differential diagnosis of ascitic fluid into transudate and exudate. Conclusions: The SAAG had more discriminatory power than fluid protein parameter and hence should replace fluid protein test in diagnostic separation of ascites into transudate and exudate.
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 02:34:25 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=236833
Pre-emptive gabapentin for postoperative pain relief in abdominal hysterectomy http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=235948 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Shailendra Deochandra Modak, Jyoti Magar, Vinayak Kakad.
Background: The relief of pain has always been a part of the anaesthesiologist’s role in the most immediate postoperative period and the development of acute postoperative pain services has extended this interest beyond the post-anaesthesia care unit. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of preoperative oral gabapentin (600 mg) on postoperative pain relief, postoperative analgesic requirement and side effects in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Methods: This prospective randomized placebo controlled study was conducted amongst sixty female patients of ASA grade I and II, age between 25-70 years, randomly allocated into two groups to receive either oral capsule gabapentin (600 mg) or placebo in the form of capsule multivitamin two hours prior to the surgery. Patients were observed 12 hours postoperatively for pain via visual analog scale (VAS), analgesic requirement and side effects. Results: It was observed that patients in gabapentin group had statistically significant lower pain score during the entire observation period in comparison to placebo group. The mean number of rescue analgesic dose requirement in the gabapentin group (2.1±0.64) was substantially lower than that of the control group (4.3±0.88). The mean sedation scores were always higher in gabapentin group as compared to control group. Two patients in gabapentin group developed dizziness for a short duration and subsided by using ondensetron and required no further intervention. Conclusions: Gabapentin significantly reduces post-operative pain and post-operative tramadol consumption with very few side effects.
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 02:28:43 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=235948
Study of knowledge and willingness regarding eye donation among medical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital of central India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=235807 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Rajesh Kumar Ahirwar, Pallavi R. Shidhaye, Indu J. Ekka, D. M. Saxena.
Background: Corneal diseases constitute a significant cause of visual impairment and blindness in the developing world. Corneal blindness constitutes 1% of total blindness. Corneal ulcers have also been recognised as a major cause of blindness in developing countries. One of the obstacles in eye donation is lack of awareness and a negative attitude among general population. The willingness about eye donation among medical fraternity definitely will affect the attitude among general population. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and willingness about eye donation among medical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital of central India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the tertiary care teaching hospital in Bhopal during the period of September 2013 to October 2013. A total of 467 students were selected by convenient sampling. Pre-designed and pre-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered in MS Excel sheet and analyzed by STATA-11. Results: A total of 467 students, out of which 263 (56%) were males and 204 (44%) female students and 380 (81.4%) were aware about eye donation. The knowledge regarding eye donation was found to be statistically significant with the gender of the participant (p
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 02:12:36 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=235807
Body mass index in celiac disease and effect of a gluten-free diet on body mass index http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=236479 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Advances in Medicine
Laxman Siddh, Ghanshyam Singh Sengar, Niranjan Nagraj, Radhe Shyam, Pradeep Garg.
Background: Various researchers have shown association of celiac disease with body mass index. We studied body mass index levels in patient with celiac disease and effect of gluten free diet on it. To compare body mass index levels in celiac disease patients with general population and to study effect of gluten free diet on BMI levels in them. Methods: 50 children with biopsy confirmed celiac disease (either newly diagnosed or having poor dietary compliance for gluten free diet) and 50 healthy children were enrolled at our centre. Their initial and after 6 months of strict gluten free diet, BMIs were measured and compared with the previous levels. Results: BMIs in patients with celiac disease was significantly lower (17.18) than the healthy children 21.20 (p
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 02:04:48 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=236479
Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes (hOGG1 and APE1) and their association with oral cancer susceptibility in rural Indian population: a hospital based case-control study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231198 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Kailas D Datkhile, Madhavi N Patil, Tejasvi S Khamkar, Rohit D Vhaval, Pratik P Durgawale, Pandurang G Chougule, Anand Gudur, Satish V Kakade.
Background: Smoking and alcohol related head and neck cancer is a major concern of health risk in urban and rural areas of India. Objective: This study was aimed to determine the frequency of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, hOGG1 at codon (cd) 326 and APE1 at cd 148 in patients of oral cancer from Maharashtra and to evaluate their association with oral cancer development. Materials and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to analyze gene polymorphisms in 200 patients with oral cancer and 200 age and sex matched disease-free controls were used. Result: The results obtained from the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the genotype distribution between oral cancer patients and controls for APE1 (p>0.05). The result showed that allele frequencies of hOGG1Cys326 (OR= 8.73; 95% CI= (2.51-30.39); p=
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Fri, 29 Jul 2016 00:33:25 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231198
A study to assess contraceptive use among married women in urban and rural areas: a comparative study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=235877 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sushma Gore, Sushma Katkuri.
Background: A high level of unmet need for contraception persists among currently married women in South Asia. At least 1 in 5 currently married women in the countries surveyed want to stop or delay childbearing, but are not using contraception. Therefore, many countries consider limiting population growth as an important component of their overall developmental goal to improve living standards and the quality of life of the people. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practices about contraceptive methods among married women in two different settings. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient department of obstetrics and gynecology at Shri Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College Yavatmal, Maharashtra for a period of two months from January 2012-February 2012. A total of 606 participants were surveyed in that two month duration. In Urban area-296 and in rural area, a total of 310 were covered. Results: Majority of the study participants were in the age group of 26-35 contributing to 46% in rural area and 37% in urban area. Awareness about contraception was good among rural area (83%) than urban area (63%). Study shows that more than 50% of the participants in both the areas were using contraceptive methods, rural (63%) and urban (53%). Conclusions: Promotion of contraceptive usage should be done by intense awareness campaigns.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 07:02:21 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=235877
Study of nonenzymatic antioxidants in schizophrenic patients http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=236520 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Hemant S. Dahake, Suresh Ghangle, Jayesh Warade, Yogesh Pawade, Gaurav S. Kansara.
Background: Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. There is now substantial evidence of increased free radical–mediated damage in schizophrenia. These mechanisms are critical role in etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. The potential toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is counteracted by a large number of cytoprotective enzymes and nonenzymatic anti-oxidants. Endogenous substances like albumin, bilirubin and uric acid play very important defensive role against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in our body. The present study was undertaken to study nonenzymatic antioxidants i.e. serum albumin, bilirubin and uric acid in first episode and chronic schizophrenic patients. Methods: 50 patients of first episode schizophrenia and 50 patients of chronic schizophrenia were included in the study. 50 numbers of age and sex matched healthy and apparently normal controls were also selected for study. Blood samples were drawn and analysed for albumin, bilirubin and uric acid from all participants. Results: The study shows significant decrease in serum albumin, bilirubin and uric acid levels in both first episode schizophrenics and chronic schizophrenic patients as compared to controls. When we compared levels of these parameters in first episode schizophrenics and chronic schizophrenics, we did not find significant difference. Conclusions: Findings in our study is suggesting that decrease in the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants occurs in attempting neutralization of ROS in schizophrenics. This study supports the defensive role of nonenzymatic antioxidants against ROS in our body.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 06:47:02 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=236520
Evaluation of red cell distribution width in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=236213 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Anuja Sharma, Mahima Sharma, Vandana Sharma.
Background: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency world over and in India. It is the most important cause of microcytic hypochromic anemia. Red cell distribution width (RDW) provides quantitative assessment of anisocytosis and could be helpful in differentiating iron deficiency anemia from other microcytic anemias. The objective behind this study was to assess the role of RDW as an early indicator in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia. Methods: A total of 100 cases of microcytic anemia (MCV
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 06:40:24 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=236213
Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1st second and forced expiratory ratio in automobile spray paint workers http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=235909 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Geetika Gupta, Sabita Yograj, Anil K. Gupta, Bhavna Langer, Mumtaz Goni.
Background: Automobile industry is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Workers engaged in automobile spray painting are at a risk of developing respiratory problems. This is due to exposure to low molecular weight compounds (isocyanates) in spray paints. Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 male subjects comprising of the study group (n=50) and the control group (n=50), 18-35 years of age, non-smoker and with no pre occupational respiratory illness. The study group included workers working for 6-8 hours a day and exposed to spray paints for ≤5 years and the controls were age and BSA matched healthy office workers of the same locality. A preformed questionnaire was given to subjects and pulmonary functions parameters (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC)) were recorded by computerised spirometer (Medspiror). Results: The two groups did not differ significantly on physical parameters. The pulmonary function parameters of the study group (FVC p=0.036, FEV1/FVC p=0.000) were found to be significantly different when compared to that of controls. As the age, weight, height and BSA increases there was a significant decrease in FEV1 in study group. Duration of exposure (
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 06:19:28 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=235909
Prevalence in the utilization of text message services under the mother and child tracking system of India: a cross sectional study from Pune district, Maharashtra, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233413 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Ankita Sharma, Aakash Shinde, Anita Kar.
Background: The mother and child tracking system (MCTS) is a surveillance system to track pregnant women and children. As it includes a provision of short message service (SMS), that alerts registered beneficiaries about outstanding services. This study determined the prevalence of use of SMS by beneficiaries of MCTS from Pune district, Maharashtra. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among respondents availing antenatal care or immunization services at ten randomly selected primary health centres (PHCs) in Pune district. Data was collected after consent using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (19.0 version). Results: The study included 205 pregnant women and 236 parents of children. Almost 66% of respondents owned a mobile phone and majority (91%) were residents in areas with network coverage. Among respondents of nine PHC’s, 17% of respondents had heard of, and 14% reported having received a text message of outstanding services on the mobile phone. At one PHC where the auxiliary nurse midwife was sending text message reminders in local language from her mobile phone, 43% respondents were aware of text messaging services and almost 24% respondents reported receipt of text messages. Education level (p
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 06:13:46 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233413
Effect of training on formulation of multiple choice questions: a cross-sectional study amongst faculty in the department of biochemistry of a medical institution in India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=234583 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Patke Vinay, Kuyare Sunil, Iyer Praveen, Bhosale Yuvaraj.
Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are an important tool for assessing whether learning objectives are being achieved. A formal training is necessary to have high standards in preparing MCQs. the effect of a training program on the quality of MCQs, amongst the faculty of Department of Biochemistry was assessed. Methods: A training program was designed with the main focus on how to construct appropriate MCQs’ by participants based on sound scientific standards and guidelines. Topics from biochemistry syllabus for first year MBBS course were selected for the study. All the study participants were newly appointed lecturers and had not undergone any formal training program in medical education technology. Training was carried out by three experts who were formally trained in medical education and were fellows of foundation for advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER). Knowledge gained by the study participants was tested by pre-test post-test comprising objective questions. The quality of MCQs before and after intervention was assessed with a validated (checklist) containing 60 items. Results: Eight faculty members participated in the study. A statistically significant improvement was observed in the knowledge of appropriate formulation of MCQs (P
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 06:09:31 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=234583
Alcohol and other substance abuse among youth: an obvious but neglected scenario in Shimla city of Himachal Pradesh, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231574 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Devender Kumar, Anupam Parashar, Anita Thakur.
Shimla, the former summer capital of the British in India, and the present capital of Himachal Pradesh, is the principal commercial, political and educational centre of the hilly regions of the state. For all these values, more than 1,60,000 people from different region of state are residing in urban area of Shimla. Moreover, thanks to its picturesque natural locales and pleasant climate it also attracts thousands of tourists every day. With due regards to all its importance, we want to highlight one rapidly growing social and public health problem in the city i.e. substance abuse. Substance abuse particularly among youth has become quite evident in the city in the form of alcohol, cigarette and other tobacco products, cannabinoid and opium extracts. Many contributing factors responsible for current scenario, which are being overlooked again and again, are described here as following.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:55:44 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231574
Estimation of relationship between eating habits and body mass index of students in Mount Kenya University, Rwanda http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233604 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Wilson R. Waweru, Onesmus T. Marete.
Background: Eating habits are a major concern among university students especially due to the transition from home environment where parents determine what to be eaten, to new environments where they or their peers choose the diet. Eating habits are considered determinants of health conditions and has been linked to death from Non-communicable diseases. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in school of Health Sciences at Mount Kenya University. A total of 630 students from entire school of health science constituted the target population for the study. Sample size of 245 students was established. Stratified sampling technique was used to select students from department of Medical laboratory science, Nursing, Pharmacy and Public health who formed sample size for the study. Close-ended questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. Results: The study found that majority of students had normal weight (65%) but there is a fairly high occurrence of overweight (20%) among the students. Further, female students skipped the three main meals i.e. breakfast, lunch and supper more frequently than male students. In addition, this study found that, the P-values of the chi-square test were greater than 0.05 hence there was not conclusive evidence of a statistical significant relationship between frequency of taking breakfast (P = 0.070), lunch (P = 0.167), or supper (P = 0.217) and body mass index of the students. Further the study found that food availability (61%), friends (6%), cost (1%) and accessibility of food (32%) were the factors that influenced students eating behaviors. The finding showed no statistical relationship between eating home cooked food (P = 0.114), eating self-cooked food (P = 0.056), frequency of taking sweet beverages per week (P = 0.567). However there was statistically significant relationship between frequency of taking fast food per week (P = 0.000), frequency of consuming snacks per week (P = 0.001), frequency of consuming vegetables per week (P = 0.000), frequency of consuming fruits per week (P = 0.033), frequency of consuming deep fried food per week (P = 0.026), frequency of consuming chicken per week (P = 0.008) and body mass index of the students. Additionally the study found out that students considered either the cost of food 29%, availability of food for purchase, 22%, favorite meals 15% or balanced diet when making food choices. A significant relationship between meals planning and BMI (P = 0.000) was realized as well as between living arrangement of the students and body mass index (P =0.000). Conclusions: The study concluded that the frequency of taking breakfast, lunch and supper has no relationship with body mass index of the students. However, frequency of taking fast food, frequency of consuming snacks, frequency of consuming vegetables, frequency of consuming fruits, frequency of consuming deep fried food and frequency of consuming chicken per week is statistically related to body mass index of students. The study also concluded that meal planning and living arrangement relates with student’s body mass index significantly.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:55:18 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233604
Clinico-epidemiological profile of confirmed swine flu (H1N1) cases admitted at an infectious disease hospital in Kolkata, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=234073 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Jadab Chandra Sardar, Arkaprabha Sau, Pankaj Kumar Mandal.
Background: Swine flu is an acute infection of respiratory tract, caused by swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Antigenic drift and shift of this virus is responsible for epidemic or pandemic in different parts of the world from time to time. Last pandemic started in 2009 at Mexico and USA, and spread globally with in a very short period of time. Post pandemic resurgence was noticed in various parts of India from 2010 to 2015. Methods: A record based descriptive study was carried out among the 89 confirmed swine flu (H1N1) cases admitted at Beliaghata ID and BG Hospital, Kolkata during last post pandemic resurgence in India between February 2015 to March 2015. Results: Among 89 confirmed swine flu cases 52.81% were male and 47.19% were female. Mean (±Standard Deviation) age was 38 (±18) yrs. Mean (±Standard Deviation) duration of hospital stay was 6.5 (±1.7) days. Among the admitted patients, 84 patients were discharged from the hospital but 5 patients succumbed to their illness. 95.51% patient presented with the chief complaint of fever. Among the admitted cases, 21.34% had either history of travel to swine flu (H1N1) infected area or contact with swine flu infected patients. There was a statistically significant association between outcome (death / discharge) and co-morbid conditions, (P value-0.047, α-5%, df-1). Conclusions: This study will help clinicians and public health specialist to understand the clinico-epidemiological profile of swine flu (H1N1) cases to diagnose, treat and to develop preventive strategies in future.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:54:56 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=234073
Assessment of oral health hygiene among high school girls of Bengaluru city, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233888 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Nimra Shireen, Ranganath T. S..
Background: Oral health is an essential component of general health and quality of life. Dental caries is a major oral public health problem particularly among the children and adolescents. The schools remain an important setting, offering an efficient and effective way to reach children worldwide. Hence, our study aims to assess the oral health hygiene and prevalence of dental caries among high school girls of Bengaluru city - south zone. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted for a period of four months (i.e.) September 2015 to December 2015 among high school girls of Bengaluru city. They were examined for their oral care, presence of caries and data regarding oral health hygiene was collected by using a semi-structured, indigenous, interviewer based questionnaire. Results: The mean age was 14.2+0.57 years. Majority of the girls (74.4%) said that they brush once daily; 36.8% were unaware about the type of tooth brush used by them. Only few students (14.8%) were using fluoride toothpaste; 72% girls brush their teeth in horizontal direction; 23.2% clean their tongue and 20% use mouth wash; 44% rinse their mouth after eating a meal. Nearly half of the study sample (45.2%) were suffering from dental caries, with mean DMFT score 2.54. Conclusions: Oral health hygiene habits among the study population were poor and needs to be improved. Awareness among the students about maintaining good oral health can be generated by involving the school teachers as they are considered as role models by the students.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:54:36 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233888
Socio-demographic profile and health needs of HIV patients: a study at a tertiary care teaching hospital http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233799 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Amol Saravade, Anita Shenoy, Ratnendra Shinde, Rachana Nile.
Background: AIDS the acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a fatal illness caused by a retrovirus known as the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) which breaks the body's immune system, leaving the victim vulnerable to a host of life. It is essential to understand the priority needs of PLHIV. So that medical and non-medical, social, cultural and economical interventions can be planned to bring them in the mainstream of the society. Objective was to study the socioeconomic and demographic profile of the HIV positive patients registered at an ART clinic and to enlist and prioritize their health and other needs. Methods: The study was carried out at an ART clinic in a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Only HIV positive patients registered at ART clinic and willing to participate in study and HIV positive patient above 18 years of age were included in the study while HIV positive patient not willing to participate in study were excluded from the study. The study was carried out during the period of April 2013 to December 2013. The statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. Results: Total number of respondents was 180. The mean age of study group is 35.49 years. Majority of the respondents had acquired at least primary or secondary education in schools, 18 (10%) respondents were graduates and only 3 (1.67%) with a post graduate degree. The priority needs as perceived by the subjects were classified as immediate, intermediate and long term needs. Conclusions: The study showed that the demographic and socioeconomic profile of the respondents reflects the same trend as at national level. The published data by ‘NACO’ corroborates these findings. A substantial proportion of the total HIV +ve cases reported are living below poverty line (31.6%). This could require special interventions to ensure that they were treated for opportunistic infections and for reducing the viral load.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:54:15 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233799
Prevalence of hypertension in an urban area: a community-based survey in Trichy, Tamilnadu, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233695 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Parveen Gani, Josephine Priya K, Selvam Paramasivam.
Background: India is facing an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. Hypertension is now a disease of prime concern due to the mortality and morbidity associated with it. In order to effectively deal with this problem we must first understand the characteristics of this disease. Aims: To assess the prevalence of hypertension in an urban district in Tamilnadu and to study selected risk factors associated with it. Methods: Community based survey in Trichy district of Tamilnadu. A total of 373 individuals were screened in the field practice area of KAP Viswanatham Government Medical College. A proforma was used to collect demographic characteristics and record findings. Blood pressure was measured; BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and unpaired (two sample) t-test were used to study the variables. Results: Prevalence of hypertension was found to be 30.56% and prehypertension was found to be 23.32%. 35.9% patients were overweight/ obese. There was no significant difference between the blood pressures of males and females. Persons above 30 years of age had significantly higher systolic (p
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:53:54 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233695
Awareness and treatment seeking behaviour of malaria in selected endemic and non-endemic rural areas of Kanyakumari district, Tamilnadu, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233715 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
SureshBalan Kumaraswamy Uma, Madhumitha Manohar, Gopal Muthukrishnan, Kiruba Jebamony, Shankar Radhakrishnan.
Background: Malaria is one of the world’s major public health concerns contributing to 243 million clinical cases and around million deaths annually. India reports the highest malaria burden in the South East Asia region. There is evidence that the availability of services alone may not ensure healthy practices, as they could be influenced by socio cultural barriers and inappropriate understanding of the disease etiology. Understanding of community perceptions and practices are crucial to bring down the burden of malaria. The objectives was to assess the awareness of malaria and treatment seeking behavior in an endemic and non-endemic area and to highlight the differences in the perceptions and treatment seeking behavior between the two areas. Methods: A descriptive study was undertaken in Primary Health Centres of Rajakkamangalamthurai (Endemic) and Chembagaramanputhur (Non endemic) for 2 Months. Patients with fever above the age of 15 years attending the Outpatient department of both the PHCs were chosen as study subjects. 150 patients were included in the study. Responses regarding malaria awareness and treatment seeking behavior were obtained using pre-structured, pre-tested and closed ended questionnaire. Results: Majority of the study subjects from the endemic area gave a correct response to the questions related to the disease terminology, modes of transmission and the usefulness of indoor residual sprays than the subjects from the non-endemic area and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:35:31 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233715
Gender discrimination among professional college students in Agartala, India: a cross-sectional study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233693 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Rituparna Das, Shampa Das, Sankha S. Debnath.
Background: Professional college students being at the base of the hierarchy of professional occupation may be vulnerable to harassment, discrimination and abuse regarding their gender. The present study was conducted with the objective to assess the prevalence and pattern of Gender discrimination among professional college students in Agartala, and to study their emotional response towards gender discrimination. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between September to November, 2015 among students of 5 randomly selected Professional colleges of Agartala. Sample size was calculated and 450 professional college students were included in the study. Results: The present study revealed that the prevalence of gender discrimination among the professional college students was 12.45% with both the males and females being victims of gender discrimination (6.80% vs 5.56%, p value 0.77). There was a significant difference in the type of discrimination experienced by the male and female students (p value-0.01) and male faculties were the main perpetrators of gender discrimination. Regarding the emotional response towards gender discrimination majority of the students complained of frustration (28.57%) followed by helplessness (26.78%) and depression (23.21%). Conclusions: Gender discrimination can be controlled in the college premises with collective efforts to minimize the belief that one sex has rights, leadership qualities, and academic status greater than that of the other sex.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:35:10 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233693
A study on awareness of HIV among first year MBBS students in a private Medical College, Kerala, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233698 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Satheesh B. C., Thilak S. A., Sarada A. K., Madusoodanan K. V., Venugopalan P. P..
Background: India has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world with 2.1 million Indians accounting for about four out of 10 people infected with the deadly virus. The lack of awareness and misconceptions about HIV/AIDS is responsible for rapid spread in our country. Many studies reported that early educational intervention has the potential to bridge the gap both in knowledge and the negative attitudes directed towards those with HIV infection. This study was conducted to assess awareness regarding HIV/AIDS in newly admitted medical students and to assess awareness regarding HIV/AIDS among first year medical students of a private medical college in Kerala, India. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on first year MBBS students of a private medical college, Kerala. A total of 135 students were interviewed using pre-validated, semi structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: All the students (100%) were aware about HIV/AIDS disease, its causative agent and diagnostics test. Majority of the students were aware about the modes of transmission and preventive approaches. A few of the respondents believed wrongly that the virus can be transmitted through mosquito bite, by hugging and kissing, through urine as well as sharing of same toilet seats and clothes with an infected person. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates an overall satisfactory level of awareness on routes of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS. A continuous such surveys at regular intervals would further help to assess the level of awareness and attitude towards HIV/AIDS for designing future educative programmes.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:34:48 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233698
Birth preparedness and complication readiness among primigravida women attending tertiary care hospital in a rural area http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233660 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Monika S. Patil, Vinod L. Vedpathak, Nandkeshav R. Aswar, Deepali S. Deo, Prashant L. Dahire.
Background: Maternal mortality in developing countries is still alarming. Each pregnancy may face the risk of sudden, unpredictable complications. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPACR) is a strategy that encourages pregnant women and their families to effectively plan for deliveries and deal with emergencies. An objective of study was to assess the status of BPACR among primigravida women and factors affecting the status of BPACR. Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted among 400 primigravida women attending ANC OPD at tertiary care hospital, from August-November 2015. Data was collected by interviewing the subjects using pre-tested, pre-designed structured questionnaire. BPACR index was calculated. Results: In this study BPACR index was 55.83%. Most of women (98.14%) identified skilled birth attendant for delivery. Though acceptable levels of registration of women in first trimester (79.75%) and identification of modes of transport in emergency (72.25%), TT2 coverage was very low (77.75%). About 63% women were aware about transportation provided by government & 70.25% women were aware about importance of 4 or more ANC visits during pregnancy. But only 68.50% women were aware about consumption of 100-FSFA tablets, whereas 31.50% of women had saved money to pay for expenses. Very few (29.75%) women identified compatible blood donors. 40.75% women knew about any one danger signs of pregnancy. Overall no women knew about all 8 danger signs of pregnancy. Conclusions: Age and education of women and of their husbands plays an important role in awareness regarding components of BPACR.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:34:21 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233660
Study of factors of utilisation of antenatal services and awareness among pregnant women in third trimester attending government maternity hospital Warangal, Telangana State, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=234767 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
L. Niharika, K. Bhavani.
Background: Understanding the factors affecting the utilization of maternity care during pregnancy and delivery is required. The present study was carried out to find out the awareness and factors associated with utilization of maternal care services. Methods: A community based observational study was conducted during September to November 2015 on randomly selected antenatal mothers attending Government Maternity hospital, Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, India. A total of 200 third trimester pregnant women were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire regarding utilization and awareness of antenatal services. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Proportions and chi-square test. Results: A total of 200 antenatal mothers participated in the study. Majority (37.5%) belonged to the age group of 20-24 years in which most of the antenatal mothers belong to Hindu religion (86.3%), of which 50.7% lived in a nuclear family. In this study, the percentage of antenatal mother belonging to Upper Lower class was predominant with 26.5%. Association was also found regarding utilization of antenatal services between age of the mother and literacy of the mother. 83.5% of the antenatal mothers had taken the recommended two doses of T.T with a complete booster dose, 87.1% are aware of family planning services, 97.8% of antenatal mothers are aware of immunization and approximately 95% of the antenatal mothers are aware of mother craft classes. Conclusions: The study shows early and wide spread use of antenatal care, but it also reveals that the antenatal visits occur late in the pregnancy. The literacy and age of women has significant bearing on utilization of antenatal care by the pregnant women.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:34:00 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=234767
Drinking water facility in urban field practice area of a medical college: a community based cross sectional study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233532 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Ashiq Rashid Mir, Mahesh H. S., M. S. Rajanna, Krishna Iyengar, Cheluve Gowda.
Background: Rapid modernisation and fast urbanisation has led to rapid filling of urban areas and increased rise in migrant population in urban areas. Water is indispensible for survival of human beings thus providing safe drinking water is one of the most basic component of urban planning .1.8 Million people die of diarrhoea each year out of which majority are under 5 children and 88% of these under 5 deaths are due to unsafe drinking water (1). This study intends to assess the quality of drinking water. Methods: A Cross sectional Study was conducted in Maralur and Maralur Dinne which are under the field practice area of Sri Siddhartha Medical College in Tumkur district of Karnataka. Results: Municipal water supply was used by 79% of the people in the study. No treatment method was used for purification of water by 81% of households.32% of people used earthen vessel to store water for drinking.68% of people dipped glass in vessel using hands to take water for drinking.46% of people had no knowledge about any disease caused by impure drinking water. Only 55 % of households cleaned their water storage vessels once a week. Conclusions: Source of drinking water supply from municipality and wells were unfit for consumption. Storage methods of drinking water are conducive for growth of pathogens. Knowledge about various diseases caused by impure drinking water is also poor. Hence drinking water supply is a challenge in urban settings.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:33:38 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233532
Breast cancer awareness among women in Vikhroli: a suburban area of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233533 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Sharayu D. Shinde, Suhas B. Kadam.
Background: Breast cancer, the second most common cancer among Indian women, accounts for seven percent of global burden of the disease. Survival rate among women with breast cancer is very poor because most of them sought treatment in advanced stage of the disease. Lack of awareness about the disease and poor facilities of screening programme may be the reason in delay for treatment. To determine the awareness about breast cancer among women in Vikhroli - a suburban area of Mumbai Methods: A community based cross sectional study is carried out in Vikhroli, a suburban area of Mumbai. Quota sampling method was used to select and include 235 women in the study. Semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect the information on breast cancer. Tabular presentation, chi square and contingency coefficients were used for data analysis. Results: Though the respondents have heard about breast cancer, they do not have in-depth knowledge about risk factors, signs and symptoms and methods of early detection. Socioeconomic status differentials are found in knowledge about breast cancer and the two are weakly associated. Conclusions: The awareness about breast cancer is low amongst women in this community. There is a need for awareness generation programs to educate women about breast cancer, propagation of correct messages and promote early detection
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:33:15 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233533
A study to assess the impact of education intervention on the knowledge regarding hazards of plastic food containers in school children http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233136 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Angelin Priya, Manju Toppo, Daneshwar Singh, Nisha Singh, Soumitra Sethia.
Background: One among the most hazardous manufacture is the plastic. It has become a part of every aspect of human living. When any food material or water is stored in the plastic containers the small, measurable amounts of the materials may migrate into food and can be consumed with it through the process of leaching. Leaching means that some of the chemicals of the plastic enter the food material or water. BPA is a structural component in polycarbonate beverage bottles. Objectives were to assess the knowledge regarding safe use of Plastics and to assess the impact of educational intervention given to them. Methods: Study design-Community based educational intervention study. Study Subjects - 300 school students of standard 7-9 and 11 of two private school of Bhopal. Results: Out of 300 students, 56% used plastics in the form of tiffin and water bottle, 37.33% used in the form of Water Bottles only and 6.66% did not use Plastic in the form of anything. The knowledge of the respondents increased after the educational intervention and the difference was found to be significant (P
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:32:46 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233136
Physical activity and its association with body mass index among 10-15 years school children in Kalaburagi city, Karnataka, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=234501 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Mubeen Hussain, Pallavi V. Tenglikar, S. R. Nigudgi.
Background: Childhood obesity is a major public health problem, causing a significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to identify certain associated risk factors for the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 10-15 years school children. Methods: The present study was carried out in 1,642 school children aged between 10 to 15 years in Kalaburagi city of Karnataka. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire proforma was administered to each child to collect data on their physical activity level, T.V watching, duration of sleep, availability of playground etc. Parameters of height and weight were measured and recorded following completion of the questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity were more in those students who did not have accessibility of playground in-front of their houses (15.25% and 8.47%) and in those students travelling by Bus (23.16% and 10.17%) and least in those students who reaches their school by walking (8.52% and 3.85%). The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were more in those students who did not participated in any of the outdoor sports (28.52% and 28.52%), who watched Television for more than 7 hours in a week (14.25% and 8.73%) and in those students who slept for less than 6 hours a day (8.75%). Conclusions: Prevalence of overweight and obesity were high among the school children and need to be addressed by primary and secondary methods of prevention.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:32:06 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=234501
A study of oral health promotion activities in India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233073 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Susheel Nalli, Shamanna Ramaswamy Bindiganavale, B. Uday Kumar Chowdary.
Background: Schools provide an important background for health promotion, as they reach around 200 million school children across India, and through them the school staff, their families, and the population as a whole. Health promotional messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children’s life, enabling them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Objective of the study was to identify the best suitable method of oral health promotional activity, and to identify states where there is deficiency related to oral health promotion, and to create awareness to ensure long term benefits. Methods: This current academic research reviews articles related to school based oral health programs from 2000 to 2014 which are published in English. Electronic search for literature related to school based oral health promotional activities across India using medline, pubmed, WHO, MOHFW. The articles selected were divided into five categories; divisions were based on those originating from North, South, East, West and Central India. Inclusion and Exclusion criteria - articles and reviews related to oral health promotion in children aged between 6 - 17 years were included and those adults are excluded. Fourteen articles were found to be relevant to school oral health promotion and hence were included in the present review. Data from all the fourteen articles was analyzed to determine the type of oral health promotional activity and the states in which they were organized. Results: There was paucity of oral health promotion in the eastern states of India. Oral health promotion at schools in Indian context is infrequently offered by the oral health professionals, oral health education is offered to school children as a part of dental checkup and treatment camps that are organized infrequently by the educational institutions. Conclusions: The concept of utilizing teachers for frequent oral health education and screening of any gross deposits of food debris or calculus and dental caries is practicable. Also regular oral health education by teachers was more effective than irregular oral health education by the oral health professionals.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:30:53 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233073
Assessment of health related quality of life of elderly diabetic patients attending urban primary health care facility - a cross sectional study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233004 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Avinash Kavi, Padmaja R. Walvekar, Maheshwar D. Mallapur.
Background: ‘Ageing’ is associated with decline in many body functions; and lifetime exposure to health hazards has an impact on elderly who contend with the “double burden” of non-communicable diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, etc., Indian elderly are more prone for chronic disease like Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and hence measuring health related quality of life among them is essential to plan interventions at primary care settings. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 400 elderly patients aged 60 years and above with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus attending outpatient department of urban primary health care facility of Belagavi city. The quality of life was assessed using modified WHO-QOL BREF questionnaire under 4 domains viz. physical health, psychological, social relationship and environment. Results: Among the participants 46% were men and 54% were women. The total scores for all the domains overall ranged between 15.75 and 73.5 with a mean score of 40.26 and a standard deviation of 11.14. The mean scores in physical, psychological, social and environmental scores were 44.21±8.50, 40.27±8.83, 36.69±14.62 and 39.9±12.58 respectively. Hypertension though the most common morbidity noted, but did not have statistically significant difference in any domains (P
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:09:21 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233004
Perspectives of cancer patients regarding spirituality and its role in cancer cure http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232926 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Dinesh Kumar, Naveen K. Goel, Awadhesh K. Pandey, Kislay Dimri.
Background: Spirituality is recognized as a key determinant of health. A strong correlation between health and spiritual healing is widely existent. Present study aims at investigating spiritual aspects of cancer patients and their opinions regarding spirituality and health and also to explore their views regarding spirituality as complementary and alternative (CAM) medicine for cure of cancer. Methods: Hospital based cross sectional study conducted 1117 among cancer patients attending a tertiary health facility. Chi square test and other elementary statistical methods were applied for data analysis. Results: Among 1117 cancer patients surveyed including 44.9% males and 55.1% females, 37.9% were of the opinion that spirituality and health are interrelated. Spiritual health was assigned Rank 1 by 21.3% respondents. There were 24.6% respondents having no spiritual distress. About 73% respondents agreed with existence of spirituality as a health component. The most common reported characteristic of spiritually healthy individuals was being in peace and calm (69.4%). Majority of respondents (97.2%) had reported faith in God. Increased faith in god after suffering from the disease was reported by 68.8% respondents. Spirituality had perceived role in recovering from disease and 61.6% respondents reported change in their outlook after suffering from this disease. Conclusions: Findings of the present study support the relationship between spirituality and health. Need is felt for introducing spiritual health care in medical practice with holistic approach effectively addressing spiritual issues in cancer management.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:08:51 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232926
Oral health awareness amongst the medical student of Telengana, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232390 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Snigdha Pattnaik.
Background: Attractive smile is a sign of good health. Oral health plays an important role in individuals overall health. Majority of systemic diseases have oral manifestations. Methods: The cross sectional study was carried out amongst the medical students of an Medical college by using WHO ORAL SURVEY for adults, with aims and objectives of estimating the prevalence and severity of oral health problem in the study population, understand and analysis various determinants of diseases of oral cavity and to create awareness on oral health. Results: Out of the 250 repondents, 40% of respondent said, the condition of tooth is very good, which is a sign of good oral hygiene. 13% of the participant said they have never visited a dentist. 23%of the participants said; they visited the dentist in last 6-12 months. 32% felt it is necessary to visit dentist regularly. Conclusions: Oral diseases have a significant impact on the quality of life of individuals, their participation in society and economic productivity as well as on health systems, making oral diseases a significant public health concern. Pain and discomfort from cavities, can affect the ability of an individual to chew and to obtain adequate nutrition, which, in turn, affects the immune response and the ability to fight disease.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:08:25 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232390
A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices of voluntary blood donation among relatives of patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in North coastal Andhra Pradesh, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232436 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Sasank Durugu, Srinivas Rao Ganta.
Background: Replacement blood donation by family members of patients provides more than 45% of blood collected in India. This increases the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. In our country where comprehensive laboratory testing is difficult, 100% non-remunerated voluntary blood donation is the safest method of blood collection. Objective was to study the depth of knowledge of blood donation among the relatives of patients admitted in the hospital, to assess the attitude of the people towards blood donation, to study the practices of blood donation followed by the general community and to understand the myths associated with blood donation in the community. Methods: The cross sectional study was carried out during the months of May and June 2015 at Anil Neerukonda Hospital, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached with NRI institute of Medical Sciences, Visakhapatnam. The subjects were selected by systematic random sampling from individuals aged between 18 and 60 years from attendants of patients admitted at the hospital. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from each participant on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices affecting voluntary blood donation. Results: There is a deficit of knowledge with regards to need for blood transfusion, methods as well as risks of remunerated blood transfusion uniformly across all ages and both the genders. Though a majority of individuals were willing for voluntary blood donation, the fears for donation and ignorance of the procedure has been a deterrent. Conclusions: Education and motivation by blood banks and health professionals can lead to increase in non-remunerated voluntary blood donations as a majority of individuals are willing for blood donation.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:08:03 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232436
A cross sectional study on menstrual hygiene of adolescent girls in rural field practice area of Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=234248 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Shweta R. Chapparbandi, S. R. Nigudgi.
Background: Adolescents make nearly one tenth of Indian population and form a crucial segment of the society. A large variety of morbidities such as nutritional deficiency disorders (stunting, wasting), menstrual disorders, etc. prevail among them. Menstruation is generally considered as unclean in the Indian society. Isolation of the menstruating girls and restrictions being imposed on them in the family, have reinforced a negative attitude towards this phenomenon. There is a substantial lacuna in the knowledge about menstruation among adolescent girls. Adolescent girls have incomplete and inaccurate information about the menstrual physiology and hygiene. Good hygienic practices such as the use of sanitary pads and adequate washing of the genital area are essential during menstruation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from January to December 2012. House to house survey was conducted; a pre-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was administered to all the adolescent girls of 10-19 years in the study area. Results: Majority of girls 121 (38.05%) were in high school; Out of 318 adolescent girls, 200 (62.89%) had attained menarche when they were 13-14 years old; Among 200 girls, majority 138(69%) use piece of cloth and 62 (31%) use sanitary pad as sanitary protection during menstruation. There was a significant association between usage of sanitary protection (cloth/pad) and education of adolescent girls (p
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:07:39 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=234248
Prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia in the first trimester http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=230365 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Ahter Tanay Tayyar, Ahmet Tayyar, Mehmet Baki Senturk, Ayse Disli Gurler, Hulya Akgun, Mehmet Tayyar.
Sirenomelia is a rare and fatal congenital anomaly. Incidence of sirenomelia one in 60,000 to 100,000 live births. Early prenatal diagnosis by first trimester scan should be the aim to minimize the physical and psychiatric trauma related to the termination of pregnancy at advanced gestation. Nulliparous woman aged 23 years was referred for evaluation because of absence of legs at 12 weeks 6 days of gestation. The upper half of the fetus appeared normal .The lower extremities appeared to be fused together in fixed extension and mobility at the hip and knee joints was restricted. A single umbilical artery was demonstrated using color dopler, Also, omphalocole was detected and the final diagnosis was sirenomelia. Parents opted for the pregnancy termination due to the lethal prognosis for the fetus. Etiological factors of sirenomelia sequence are still unclear. Several heterogeneous risk factors have been reported, but all of them are debatable. Anomalies of kidneys, significant oligohydramnios and concomitant hypoplasia of the lungs make a very unfavorable prognosis for sirenomelia. Termination of the pregnancy is an option due to a lethal prognosis. It should be offered to the parents when diagnosis of the sirenomelia is made. First trimester diagnosis will give oppurtunity to the patient more safer and less traumatic termination procedure.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 05:02:15 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=230365
Relationship of education and socio-economic status with knowledge about abnormal uterine bleeding and its risk factors http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232553 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Nupur Hooja, Nisha Singh, PremlataMital, Smriti Bhargava, Avantika Sharma, Bhomraj Kumawat.
Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common but overlooked condition. The lack of information and poor attitude towards health is often the reason. The knowledge of women regarding AUB and the preventable factors and its association with their education and socioeconomic status has never been assessed. Hence, the study was undertaken to assess the knowledge and attitude of women with AUB regarding the condition, its etiology, risk factors and treatment modalities in relation to their education and socio economic status. Methods: The cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among women with AUB. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect the required information. Knowledge of AUB and its risk factors from women with AUB were given scores 1-8 and 1-6 respectively. Information on education and socioeconomic status was also noted. Statistical analysis of data was done. Results: Knowledge score for AUB ≤4 and its risk factors ≤3 was found in 63% and 72% of respondents respectively. Poor reading ability and low socio economic status was significantly associated with poor knowledge scores. Conclusions: Intensive enlightenment of population using the mass media by trained personnel and strengthening of primary health care services is recommended.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:55:38 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232553
Assessment of patient’s satisfaction regarding the service quality of a rural hospital of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232456 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Prosenjit Naskar, Somnath Naskar, Sima Roy.
Background: Patients satisfaction is the basis of quality healthcare services. To improve quality of healthcare it is most important to obtain feedback from patients. Patients’ satisfaction or service quality mostly depends on patients’ expectation. This study was conducted to identify some important areas where improvement can be done by knowing patients expectation, perception and their gaps. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients aged >18 years. Total 350 patients from OPD by consecutive sampling and 309 patients from IPD by complete enumeration was taken from a rural hospital of Burdwan district. A modified form of SERVQUAL questionnaires was used. Results: Service quality gaps were identified across all the five dimensions as well as all the 22 items of the survey instrument (except one item). All those gaps were statistically significant (Except two items). It was identified that highest service quality gap exist against the item no. 8 (Provide its services at the time) for OPD and item no. 20 (Readiness for personal attention) for IPD services. Conclusions: This study measured service quality of a hospital in the context of patients’ perceptions and expectations and identified some areas of improvement while catering health services. The findings can help the healthcare provider to plan conceptually in improving health care delivery systems.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:54:51 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232456
Evaluation of impact of educational intervention on knowledge and practice regarding breast self-examination among paramedical workers in a teaching hospital Maharashtra, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232492 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Shubhada Sunil Avachat, Vijaya Jayant Thipse, Sandip Arunrao Joshi.
Background: Breast self-examination (BSE) is an appropriate strategy for early case detection and improve survival of breast cancer and is probably the most feasible approach to wide population coverage in many developing countries. Health workers play a key role in disseminating the knowledge in community however several studies conducted in different countries documented poor knowledge among them. Hence present study was conducted to evaluate the change in knowledge level after educational intervention about BSE among paramedical workers. Methods: An interventional study was conducted among 80 paramedical workers (nurses, lab technicians and social workers) of a teaching hospital and changes in knowledge were assessed with the help of pre designed questionnaire. Data was analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques. Results: The mean score of knowledge changed from 8.55 to 12.48 after the training. Majority of the paramedical workers (73%) had poor or average knowledge about BSE and significant improvement occurred in the knowledge level after the intervention. Conclusions: The knowledge regarding BSE was poor or average among the paramedical workers and educational intervention positively changed the knowledge level among them and almost all paramedical workers desired to impart this knowledge to the community.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:54:25 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232492
A study on selected behavioral factors of mothers influencing acute diarrhoea in under- five children in a rural part of Kerala, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231481 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Divya S., C. R. Saju, C. J. Navya, Vidhu M. Joshy, Jini M. P., Radhamani M. V..
Background: Diarrhoea remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among underfive children. Globally it accounts for 2 million deaths per year. Diarrhoea is the third most common cause of death in underfive children, responsible for 13% deaths in India each year. Behaviour can also depend upon the socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic factors affect environmental, behavioral and nutritional risk factors. Proper nutrition, especially exclusive breast feeding is one of the most important interventions for its control. Inadequate personal hygiene along with other environmental factors are responsible for 90% of diarrhea. The objective is to assess behavioral factors of mothers influencing diarrhoea in underfive children. Methods: Community- based cross- sectional study was conducted in a rural area among 103 mothers of underfive children with acute diarrhoea in the past six months. Results: Most mothers were in the higher income 80 (77.6%) group. Those who practised handwashing after toilet and before cooking was 96 (93.2%). Proportion of mothers using boiled water for drinking was 99( 96.1%); bottle feeding 77(74.8%); and practised sanitary waste disposal methods 93(90.3%). The practice of using boiled water was statistically significant among higher income group (P =0.047). Occupation of the mother was significantly associated with the habit of child’s eatingout (P=0.019). Conclusions: This study shows that the practice of handwashing and use of boiled water for drinking was lower among lower socioeconomic families. This warrants need to create awareness about it among low socioeconomic families in rural areas.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:53:58 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231481
Prevalence of dyslipidemia in South Indian adults: an urban-rural comparison http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233742 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Ajay Raj S., Sivakumar K, Sujatha K.
Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries, and is one of the major public health problems globally. There is an emerging evidence of premature CAD occurring in Asian Indians, at least 10 years earlier as compared to other ethnic groups. Dyslipidemia is a consequence of modernization because the prevalence of dyslipidemia is higher in urban than rural areas. In this context, the present study was aimed to determine lipid levels and to compare the lipid levels and prevalence of dyslipidemia in a rural and urban community in Tamil Nadu. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study done on Adults ≥ 30 years of age residing in the Field practice area of Rural Health Centre and Urban Health Centre, Division of Community medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University. This study included Interview schedule, Anthropometry, Blood pressure measurement and Fasting lipid profile on 325 subjects of whom 165 and 160 belong to urban and rural population respectively. Results: The study revealed higher prevalence of dyslipidemia, which was marginally higher in the urban (74.5%) than the rural (68.8%) area but the difference was statistically not significant. (p value=0.246). The extents of high total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides were marginally higher in the urban area but the difference was statistically not significant. There is a linear association between the prevalence of dyslipidemia, age and body mass index. Conclusions: Our study concluded the higher percentage of dyslipidemia both in the urban and rural population. Hence, awareness programmes on desirable diet and regular screening of population on periodic basis should be incorporated at the primary health care level.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:53:24 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=233742
Association between skinfold thickness and neck circumference with anemia in rural school going adolescent girls http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232170 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Saiprasad Kavthekar, Ashok Chougule, Anil Kurane, Devayani Kulkarni.
Background: Anemia is one of the most common hematological abnormalities found in children and adolescents. Unfortunately assessment of nutritional status of adolescent girls has been the least explored area of research, particularly in rural India. There are studies which associated Body Mass Index and anemia in adolescent girls. But the validity of BMI across diverse samples of youth has not been evaluated. Objective of this study was to study association between skinfold thickness and neck circumference with anemia in rural school going adolescents. Methods: A prospective study was carried out among 1200 rural adolescent girls of 10 randomly selected government schools (120 girls from each school and from each class 30 girls) between the age group of 12-16yrs. Skin fold thickness was measured by Herpenden’s caliper. Neck circumference was measured. The hemoglobin levels were estimated by cyanmethemoglobin method by finger prick. The collected data was statistically analysed. Results: The prevalence of anemia in rural school going adolescent girls was 54.2%. 91.3% adolescent girls had SFT
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:18:16 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232170
Appraisal of menstrual hygiene management among women in a rural setting: a prospective study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232113 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Geethu C., Elizabeth Phoeba Paul, Jasmin Elizabeth Thomas, Chintu S. Pullan, Hemalatha S., Sivakumar T..
Background: Menstrual hygiene management has been defined as, women and adolescent girls using a clean menstrual management material to absorb or collect blood that can be changed in privacy as often as necessary for the duration of the menstruation period using soap and water for washing the body as required and having access to facilities to dispose of used menstrual management materials (UNICEF and WHO, 2014). Management of menstruation in a hygienic manner is essential for females because poor maintenance of hygiene during menstruation causes reproductive tract infections. The aim is to assess the practices of menstrual hygiene among women of age group 18-45 in a rural setting. Methods: A prospective, randomised, observational study was carried out in the outpatient department of obstetrics and gynaecology in a rural setting using a well-designed questionnaire. Results: Out of 186 study subjects, sanitary pads were used by 83.87%.An adequate washing of external genitalia was followed, that is 3-4 times/day (51.61%). Only 8.07% of them used vaginal washes.82.25%seemed to change the sanitary pad before sleep. 38.37% used more than 4 pads per day. The frequency of baths varied from twice (69.35%) to once (25.8%) per day. Only 8.06% used OTC to manage menstrual pain.61.39% of them stored the sanitary pads in the bathroom.67.74% burnt, 16.12% threw along with domestic waste, 6.45% threw in open places and 9.67% buried the pads. Conclusions: Overall, the study reported a satisfactory menstrual hygiene practice.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:17:56 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232113
Study of knowledge, attitude and practice of AYUSH doctors, evaluation of MHTs working in RBSK and client satisfaction http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232085 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Sachin Parmar, S. B. Bansal, Deepa Raghunath, Ananad Patidar.
Background: Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) is newly launched programme under NRHM, under which screening of 6 month to 18 year children done by AYUSH doctors. The objective was to evaluate the infrastructure and staff available with mobile health teams (MHTs), knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of AYUSH doctors regarding 4Ds and client satisfaction for screening done by AYUSH doctors. Methods: Two blocks from each Indore and Ujjain district were randomly selected and observational check list made according to norms of RBSK was used for assessment of staffing pattern, availability of equipment’s with mobile health team. A pretested questionnaire is used to evaluate KAP of AYUSH doctors and client satisfaction. Results: According to the norms of Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram all the mobile health teams were deficient in terms of human resources and equipments. All the doctors under study were graduate in AYURVEDA, most of them were trained for RBSK and having good knowledge regarding the 4Ds, a significant difference was observed in their attitude and practice with regards to referrals and examination of children. Most of the beneficiaries were satisfied with the screening services. Conclusions: All Mobile Health Teams were deficient in paramedical staff and tool kit for screening where the used tools were replaced only once a year. And there is difference in attitude and practice of MHT doctors.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:17:36 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=232085
Common menstrual complaints and use of medication, among undergraduate students of Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India: a cross sectional study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231949 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Mahesh Kumar Shukla, Samreen Khan, Anurag Srivastava.
Background: Menses is associated with many complaints in girls. Very little work is done on prevalence of menstrual problems among Indian population. Problem of pain is by far the most common problem reported by majority of girls. This has an impact on public and occupational health. In India the girls hesitate to discuss these problems even with their parents. Thus most of the time either they do not take any medication to resolve their problem, or take some pills on their own to get relief. Finding out the common menstrual problems and the pattern of medication use will be helpful in planning a health care program for the population. Objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of common menstrual complaints among under-graduate students of Moradabad region and to assess the pattern of medication, used by them, for these complaints. Methods: 396 female first year students pursuing undergraduate course were studied with the help of a structured pilot tested questionnaire. Results: 93.4% girls were found to have some or the other complaint during menstruation. Body-ache (64%) was the most common complaint reported followed by pain in abdomen (59%) and backache (57%). 37.9% subjects reported to use some medicine for menstrual problems. 65.3% of those who used medicine used it for pain in abdomen, either alone or in combination with some other complaints. Only 23.9% of those belonging to rural background consulted doctor before using medicine, as against 48.3% of those belonging to urban background. Conclusions: Present study shows a high prevalence of medical problems during menstruation. Mostly medicines were used for the pain in abdomen either alone or in combination with other complaints. Menstrual problems constitute an important unmet area of reproductive health services. Packages of reproductive health care should include modules for education, diagnosis and treatment of most menstrual morbidities.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:17:17 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231949
Role of dietary factors in management of cardiovascular diseases in rural population http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231898 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Bhavani Yamasani, Siva Sakkara Reddy Pattubala, G. Raviprabhu.
Background: Management of cardiovascular diseases in relation to dietary factors presents a particular challenge due to the paucity of healthcare facilities and lack of awareness. Aim of the study the present study was undertaken to study the role of dietary factors in management of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: A total of 734 respondents of both male and female subjects with age group of 30 years and above age group were taken consent to study the role of dietary factors in management of cardiovascular risk factors in rural population of Tirupati. Results: The prevalence of low fruit and vegetable consumption has been found to be higher in those aged more than 50 years, female sex, Illiterate and primary level of education, unskilled occupation, unmarried/widowed/divorced, other religion, nuclear family, scheduled caste and tribe and those belonging to lower socioeconomic status. Extra salt consumption was found in 7.8% subjects. The cardiovascular risk was found 76% belong to low risk, and 9.8% to medium risk and 14.2% belong to high risk in our study. Conclusions: The present study suggests that diet factors like fruit and vegetable intake, amount of salt and oil consumption are most important risk factors in managing the cardiovascular diseases.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:16:47 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=231898
The effect of licorice drink on cytochrome P3A6 and P-glycoprotein gene transcription in rabbits http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=229226 2016-07-30T02-10-23Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Rawia Al-Balawnih, Suheil Zmeili, Yacoub Irshaid, Malek Zihlef.
The effect of licorice drink, a widely used herb in the Middle East, on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P3A6 (CYP3A6) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene transcription using rabbit as an animal model was assessed. This article reports that licorice treated groups showed a significant induction of hepatic CYP3A6 expression by 17.6-folds, and an inhibition of intestinal CYP3A6 expression by 7.6-folds. Licorice administration did not affect P-gp expression neither in hepatic nor in intestinal tissues. It is concluded that licorice can affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A6 substrates, but it might not affect the transport of drugs dependent on P-gp.
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Thu, 28 Jul 2016 04:13:45 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=229226