ScopeMed - RSShttp://www.scopemed.orgScopeMed RSSen-us Copyright © 2011 ScopeMed All rights reserved. ScopeMedhttp://www.scopemed.org/img/logo-scopemed-ttk.gifhttp://www.scopemed.org 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z Study of potential drug–drug interaction between prescribed drugs in patients attending outpatient department of medicine at tertiary-care hospital in south Gujarat region http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=165251 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Nilesh B Chavda, Priti P Solanky, Hinal Baria, Ruchi Naik, Komal Bharti.
Background: Drug–drug interactions (DDIs) are very common and responsible for 6%–30% of the adverse drug events that will increase healthcare cost and patient outcome. Polypharmacy significantly contributes to DDIs. Aims and Objective: To assess the DDIs in the outpatients in the medicine department in a tertiary-care hospital. Materials and Methods: The prescription of patients attending OPD of medicine department were analyzed for demography of patients and potential drug–drug interaction (pDDI). pDDI were checked by freely available drug interaction checker on Internet. pDDI were classified major, moderate, and minor according to severity and, by its mechanism, as pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, or pharmacokinetic + pharmacodynamic. Statistical analysis was done using appropriate statistical software (MS Excel, Epi info, etc.). Results: Of the 300 patients who attended the medicine OPD during the study period, 253 patients were included in our study. From these, 128 (50.59%) were men and 125 (49.41%) women. Among these 253 patients, 147 (58.27%) patients had at least one pDDI and 106 (41.9%) patients had no pDDIs. The incidence of pDDI per patient was 1.68 ± 2.68 in our study. Average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 4.4 ± 1.48 in our study. A direct correlation was observed between the age of the patients and the number of pDDIs (r = 0.35, P < 0.01), between the age of the patients and the number of the drugs prescribed (r = 0.18, P < 0.01), and between the number of drugs prescribed and the number of pDDIs (r = 0.69, P < 0.01). Among 423 pDDIs, 215 (50.83%) were pharmacodynamic drug interactions, 163 (38.53%) pharmacokinetic, and 45 (10.64%) showed both kinds of mechanisms. Interactions with major severity accounted for seven (1.65%) of the total pDDIs, while those with moderate and minor severity accounted for 321 (75.87%) and 95 (22.46%), respectively. Conclusions: In our study, we found that most common pDDIs were pharmacodynamic in nature and of moderate severity. The number of pDDI increased with increase in the age of patients and the number of drugs prescribed.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=165251
Blood group distribution and its relationship with bleeding time and clotting time http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=170236 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Manjeet Kaur, Arvinder Singh, Roopam Bassi, Deepinder Kaur.
Background: Blood group plays a vital role in the field of transfusion medicine. The relationship between bleeding time, clotting time, and blood group is important in certain clinical conditions such as epistaxis, surgery, and thrombosis. Researchers have shown that epistaxis is more often encountered in patients having blood group O probably due to lower expression of von Willebrand factor, and elevated levels are a risk factor for thrombosis. Thus, earlier studies found prolonged bleeding and clotting time in individuals with O blood group. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between bleeding time and clotting time among various blood groups and to identify any gender difference among the same. Materials and Methods: Our study included 150 MBBS students in the age group of 17–20 years. The blood grouping was carried out with the standard antisera, and bleeding time and clotting time were estimated by Duke method and capillary tube method respectively. Finally, bleeding time and clotting time of different blood groups were compared and statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Blood group B (40.7%) was the most common blood group in both genders followed by O (27.3%), A (20.7%), and AB (11.3%). Bleeding time was found to be prolonged >4 min in maximum number of group O (22%) followed by group B (18%), group AB (5.9%), and group A (3.2%) but the difference was statistically insignificant (p = 0.509). Similarly clotting time was >6 min in group B (14.8%) followed by group O (14.6%), group AB (11.76%), and group A (9.7%) but the difference was statistically insignificant (p = 0.885). Gender-wise bleeding time was more prolonged in females (15.7%) than males (13.1%) but the difference was statistically insignificant (p = 0.236), similarly clotting time too was prolonged more in females (16.9%) than males (9.8%) but again the difference was statistically insignificant (p = 0.662). Conclusions: In our study, blood group B predominated followed by O, A, and AB. Bleeding time was prolonged >4 min in blood group O followed by B, AB, and A whereas clotting time was prolonged >6 min in blood group B followed by O, AB, and A. Gender-wise bleeding and clotting time were higher in females than males.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=170236
A study of mental distress in medical students http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=1187 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Kiran Mehta, Sukhjinder Kaur, Kawalinder Kaur Girgla, Parminder Kaur, Harkirat Kaur.
Background: Mental distress is defined as unpleasant mental or emotional state, often impairing one’s ability to cope with day-to-day living. The undergraduate medical training is a stressful period and medical students undergo tremendous stress during various stages of the MBBS course. Aims and Objective: The objective was to study the prevalence of mental distress among the undergraduate students of medical college and to find out the correlation between mental distress and different explanatory variables among the study population. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study carried out on 339 undergraduate medical students (208 females and 131 males). We used a self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20) for the assessment of mental distress and correlated that with different explanatory variables. Results: Mental distress is more in second-year students, in female students as compared to male students, hostellers as compared to day scholars, students of rural background, and students who have repeated attempts in premedical entrance examination. Conclusion: Mental distress is common among medical students. The negative effects of long and tiring medical education on the psychological status of students have been shown in several studies. With early identification and effective psychological services, possible future illnesses may be prevented. As the study findings showed a high level of stress among the second-year students, we suggest supporting them and taking care of this group by the student support system. This will also help them cope well with stress in the later years. It is very important to target stress-prevention strategies at students who have any level of psychological stress to prevent the development of more serious conditions relating to stress.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=1187
Reference models of lung function parameters from FVC maneuver for south Indian male early adolescent population http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=173192 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
J Shivakumar, Jnaneshwara P Shenoy, Sadashiv L Karne, Sunilkumar S Biradar, Ningappa S Muniyappanavar, Gajanan H Nayak.
Background: Usefulness of any test is determined by the availability of suitable standards. Lung function parameters are dependent on multiple anthropometric, genetic, and environmental factors. Some of these effects can be transient; hence, updating of normative standards for pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters on a regular basis in every ethnically distinct society is of overriding importance. Aims and Objective: To correlate lung function parameters [obtained from forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuver] with anthropometric variables and age, and to derive normative data for these parameters using the best possible combination of independent variables. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of lung function in a non-hospital-based early adolescent male population. It included 91 male children in the age group of 10–15 years. Lung function parameters were obtained using a computerized spirometer with Fleisch-type pneumotachograph, which were subjected to correlational analysis with height, weight, and age. Regression analyses were performed for PFT parameters by introducing age/anthropometric data as independent variables. Results: All PFT parameters except forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/FVC showed positive correlation with height, weight and age. Regression analysis yielded that height alone (FEV1 and MEF25), age alone (MEF50, MEF75, MMEF, and PEF), and age with height (FVC) contributed for the variance in these PFT parameters. Conclusion: A population-, age-, and sex-specific linear prediction equations are presented for various PFT parameters based on the cross-sectional study conducted in an early adolescent male population from south India.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=173192
Diagnostic accuracy of c-reactive protein in immunocompromised patients with sepsis in intensive care units http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=173258 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Manu S Menon, Simbita Marwah, Mihir Mehta, Arya D Dipak.
Background: It is very crucial to recognize infection in immunocompromised patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) in critically ill immunocompromised patients with sepsis. Aims and Objective: To find out the diagnostic utility of CRP in immunocompromised patients with sepsis. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which included immunocompromised patients with suspected sepsis. Patients were classified into two diagnostic groups: those with nonbacterial sepsis and those with bacterial sepsis, and the values of CRP were estimated. Results: Of 94 patients (63 men and 31 women) with a median age of 56 years (95% CI 53.9–59.3), 74 (78.5%) had immunosuppression with nonbacterial sepsis and 20 (21.4%) had immunosuppression with bacterial sepsis. CRP concentrations were higher in the group with bacterial sepsis [30.94 ng/ml (95% CI 25.13–36.74)] than those with nonbacterial sepsis [7.46 ng/ml (95% CI 7.05–7.87), P < 0.0001]. CRP concentrations that were >6 mg/L had 93.33% sensitivity but only 63.20% specificity for diagnosing sepsis. The accuracy of diagnosis was 87.23%. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.82 (0.72–0.92). Conclusion: Despite limited specificity in critically ill immunocompromised patients, CRP concentrations may help to rule out bacterial infection.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=173258
Drug use pattern of over-the-counter and alternative medications in pregnancy: A cross sectional descriptive study http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=175234 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Ganti Shruti, Podila Karuna Sree, Yadala Venkata Rao.
Background: Drug treatment in pregnancy presents a special concern because of the physiological changes in the mother besides the drug effects on fetus. In addition, usage of drug available over-the-counter (OTC) medication adversely affects the mother and fetus. Hence, this study was planned to observe the OTC usage during pregnancy in India. Aims and Objective: To assess and compare the pattern and extent of OTC drug usage in pregnant women of rural and urban areas. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study done at a tertiary-care hospital. Pregnant women aged 18–38 years attending the obstetrics outpatient department at KIMS and urban clinics were enrolled randomly. Written informed consent was taken and questionnaire filled consisting of sociodemographic data and OTC usage, mode, source, and type of request. Statistical analysis was done using percentages and X2 test. Results: Among 483 (rural, 248; urban, 235) antenatal women enrolled, 12.83% consumed OTC drugs (urban areas, 16.5%; rural, 9.27%). Higher OTC usage was observed in first (rural, 39.13%; urban, 53.84%) and second trimesters (rural, 43.47%; urban, 33.3%) and women with higher income levels (rural, 52.17%; urban, 58.97%) and education (rural, 60.86%; urban, 56.41%). The main reason for OTC usage was emergency situation (for immediate relief). Source of request was pharmacist’s advice/previous prescriptions. Type of request for acquiring OTC was by telling symptoms in both urban and rural areas. Conclusions: Although OTC usage was less, most of the women were not aware of the teratogenic effects of drugs. Hence, an alarming need is necessary to educate the women and pharmacists and to frame and follow the strict regulatory guidelines for the OTC drugs sale, thereby to prevent the irrational use of drugs.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=175234
Heart rate variability by Poincaré plot analysis in patients of essential hypertension and 12-week yoga therapy http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=174925 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Punita Pushpanathan, Madanmohan Trakroo, R P Swaminathan, Chandrasekar Madhavan.
Background: Hypertension is one of the psychosomatic disorders prevalent throughout the world. It needs not only medical management but also lifestyle modification as it is the major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. Yoga is one such tool that can be used in the management of hypertension. To measure the effect of yoga, various scientific communities have frequently used heart rate variability by spectral analysis. This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of yoga by Poincaré plot analysis of heart rate variability. Aims and Objective: To study the effect of 12-week yoga therapy on heart rate variability by Poincaré plot analysis in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and Methods: Patients satisfying the study criteria from the Medicine Outpatient Department of Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India, were included in the study after obtaining a written informed consent. Seventy patients were randomly divided into two groups: control and yoga. Yoga group received supervised yoga training (3 days in a week for 12 weeks) in addition to routine medical care. Resting cardiovascular parameters, heart rate variability by Poincaré plot analysis was recorded in both the groups before and after the study period. Data were analyzed using the appropriate statistical test. p-Value of
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=174925
Lower esophageal sphincter pressures in gastroesophageal reflux disease: Where do they stand? http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=175918 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Madhu Bhatt, Bikalp Thapa.
Background: Esophageal manometry is mandatory for localization of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in patients undergoing ambulatory esophageal pH-metry for proper positioning of the pH-sensing catheter. Manometry not only gives the location of LES but also provides its tone in terms of basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure (BLESP) in mm Hg. Aims and Objectives: To study the LES pressures in cases of gastroesophageal reflux disease and to evaluate its significance by determining correlation between LES pressures and DeMeester score. Materials and Methods: In the study, 54 subjects with clinical diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux participated. Manometry was performed using pneumohydraulic water perfused system, followed by a 24-h ambulatory esophageal pH-metry. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software, version 22. Results: The mean BLESP was 13.68 ± 3.93 mm Hg, and DeMeester score was 16.94 ± 9.57. A significant negative correlation with a Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) of -0.632 (p < 0.001) was seen between BLESP and DeMeester score. Conclusion: High DeMeester score as in cases of gastroesophageal reflux is found to be significantly negatively correlated with low values of BLESP.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=175918
A glimpse into the pathophysiology, mechanisms, and management of neuropathic pain http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=176260 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Mohammad M Zarshenas, Mahmoodreza Moein, Soliman Mohammadi Samani, Peyman Petramfar.
One of the most frequent problems in medical care is the management of patient presenting with chronic pain. Neuropathic pain is related to the injury or disorders affecting peripheral and central nervous systems and is resistant to over-the-counter analgesics and conventional treatment methods. The estimated prevalence for patients presenting classical symptoms of neuropathic pain is eventually reported to be 6%–8%. Several mechanisms have been considered and proposed for this disorder. The involvement of small and large sensory fibers as well as motor fibers is a reason for the presence of neuropathic pain. In addition to the lifestyle modification, a number of different therapeutic approaches and treatment protocols have been applied to control the neuropathic pain. However, management is still unsatisfactory. Comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders are associated with this disorder and should be previously considered and eliminated. Analgesics, tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsant, serotonin– norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and local anesthetic agent as well as opioid analgesics and herbal medicaments such as capsaicin are known treatment lines for the management of neuropathic pain. Regarding the unsuccessfulness of single therapy, poly-pharmacy or combination therapy of two or more agents with synergistic mechanisms and different modes of action seems necessary.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=176260
Prevalence and risk factors for opportunistic infections in HIV patients who developed adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a tertiary-care teaching hospital http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=176681 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Kolar Bylappa Bhuvana, Narasimhe Gowda Hema, Rajesh T Patil.
Background: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to decline in HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs). Knowledge of the most common OI of that geographical area will help in implementing the preventive measures against that pathogen. We determined the prevalence and risk factors for OIs among patients who developed adverse drug reaction (ADR) to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Aims and Objective: To collect demographic details of HIV-positive patients who were on ART and developed ADR to ART with OI and without OI; to determine the prevalence of OIs in HIV-positive patients who developed ADR to ART; and to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical risk factors associated with their occurrence. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out between January and June 2012. The study population comprised HIV-infected patients, who were receiving ART at ART Center, KR Hospital of Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore, Karnataka, India, who developed ADRs to ART with or without OI. Results: The prevalence of OI was 50.63%. The sociodemographic variables that had significant positive association with the presence of OIs on univariate analysis includes employment [odds ratio (OR) = 4.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.52–9.75; p = 0.00). The risk of OIs did not significantly differ according to gender (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.41–1.45; p = 0.21), age (OR = 1.658, 95% CI = 0.82–3.32; p = 0.079), residence (OR = 0.812, 95% CI = 0.43–1.52; p = 0.26), literacy (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.48–1.70; p = 0.38), marital status (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.70–4.61; p = 0.11), or weight (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 0.84–3.42; p = 0.07). The univariate analysis of clinical risk factors for OIs had a significant positive association with WHO staging (OR = 24.04, 95% CI = 5.5–105.01; p = 0.00) and CD4 count (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.32–5.16; p = 0.00). The risk of OIs did not significantly differ with adherence (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.07–1.99; p = 0.13). Conclusion: OIs remain a challenge in patients receiving ART in resource-limited settings. There is a need to intensify the management of OIs despite ART use.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=176681
The association of ghrelin -501A/C polymorphism with ghrelin and leptin levels in nonobese Saudi Population with type 2 diabetes mellitus http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177288 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Tarek Mohamed Ali, Amany Salah Khalifa, Mohamed Noureldin H. Ali.
Background: Saudi Arabia is one of the three of the world’s top 10 countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Ghrelin is a gut–brain endogenous peptide, and the genetic variations within the gene have been associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aims and Objective: To study the association of ghrelin -501A/C polymorphism with ghrelin and leptin levels in nonobese Saudi population with T2DM. Materials and Methods: Eighty unrelated Saudi subjects with diabetes and 56 healthy controls were recruited. Single nucleopeptide polymorphism (SNP) -501A/C (rs26802) of the ghrelin gene was genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Individuals were phenotypically characterized by body mass index, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, and leptin and ghrelin levels. Results: No significant difference in the -501A/C genotype distributions and allele frequency was observed between T2DM and control subjects (both P > 0.05). Plasma ghrelin was negatively correlated with serum glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol in Saudi patients with diabetes. However, in control persons, no significant correlation was observed. In T2DM group, the 501A/A and 501A/C genotypes were associated significantly with lower plasma levels of ghrelin compared with C/C mutant homozygotes (P = 0.031), while the polymorphism was not associated with the lipid profile, leptin levels, or blood pressure. Conclusions: Although, the plasma levels of ghrelin were lower in A carriers compared with C/C mutant homozygotes and A carriers were associated with lower ghrelin levels, the ghrelin gene -501A/C polymorphism has no significant relationship with the susceptibility of T2DM in the Saudi patients with diabetes.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177288
Comparative evaluation of topical carboxymethyl cellulose either alone or in combination with topical corticosteroid in the treatment of dry eye in a tertiary-care teaching hospital http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177694 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Saubhagya Sindhu, Shaktibala Dutta, Mirza Atif Beg, Sanjeev Kumar Mittal, Sushobhan Das Gupta.
Background: The treatment of dry eyes has traditionally involved hydrating and lubricating the ocular surface, which include usage of artificial tear drops [carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)]. Corticosteroids possess potential anti-inflammatory properties, thereby used in controlling inflammation in many organs. FDA has approved the prescription of topical corticosteroids for corticosteroid-responsive inflammatory conditions such as dry eye diseases. Aims and Objective: To compare the effect of topical CMC alone or in combination with topical corticosteroid for the treatment of dry eye in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients diagnosed with dry eye were enrolled for a study period of 1 year. Patients (n = 60) were stabilized on CMC for 2 weeks and there then divided into two groups: group I (n = 30), CMC; group II (n = 30), CMC + corticosteroid. The patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Diagnostic tests included Schirmer’s test and tear breakup time (TBUT) test. Quality of life was assessed by Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Analysis was done by t test; p
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177694
Drug prescription pattern for bronchial asthma in a tertiary-care hospital in Eastern India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=180611 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Anju Prasad, Sweta Padma Pradhan, Pratyay Pratim Datta, Shambo Samrat Samajdar, Parbaty Panda.
Background: A wide range of medications are now available for the treatment of asthma, and selection of optimal treatment is essential. Aims and Objective: To evaluate the drug-prescribing trend of antiasthmatic drug in a tertiary-care hospital. Materials and Methods: The prescription data from 130 patients with asthmapatients were studied using a prescription auditing pro forma. Data were recorded from the patients attending the outpatient department of Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital from February to July 2014. Verbal consent was taken from the patients before filling the pro forma. Results: During the study, 130 patients were monitored but only 100 prescriptions were included for data analysis as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographic analysis of data revealed that there were 66% men and 34% women in the study. The study showed that maximum patients with asthma belonged to 30–40 years age group. The results of this study showed that most of the patients received combination therapy as compared with individual therapy. Majority of the patients received combination therapy of beta 2 agonists and glucocorticoids via inhalational routes; 34% of the prescribed drugs are from the essential drug lists. Average drugs per prescription were 5.16, and 54% of the patients received more than four drugs. About 60% drugs were given by inhalation route, followed by oral route (38%). Conclusion: There is need to encourage the physician to use the treatment guidelines while managing patients with asthma. In conclusion, National Asthma Education program would benefit as an initial step to improve asthma knowledge and increase awareness in the medical community on current treatment practice.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=180611
Effect of combining an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a vitamin D receptor activator on renal oxidative and nitrosative stress in diabetic rats http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177563 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Tarek Mohamed Ali, Basem Hassan El Esawy, Elsayed A Elmorsy.
Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive and irreversible renal disease. Experimental researches have established the role of oxidative stress as a central factor in pathogenesis, onset, and advancement of DN. Aims and Objectives: To investigate the effect of the combined treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, and the specific vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol, alone or in combination, using a diabetic rat model. Materials and Methods: Fifty rats were divided into five groups of 10 rats each. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg bw). Group 1 consisting of normal rats was served as control group. Group 2 was treated with vehicle (100 μl propylene glycol ip), group 3 was treated with enalapril (25 mg/l in drinking water), group 4 was treated with paricalcitol (0.8 μg/kg ip, 3 × weeks), and group 5 was treated with both drugs. The rats were treated for 3 months. Biochemical analysis was performed using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Evaluation of oxidant/antioxidant balance and immunohistochemical localization of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in the kidney tissue was performed. Results: Combined treatment with both drugs was associated with significantly lower blood glucose, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, levels and significantly higher levels of the antioxidant parameters more than those observed for monotherapy. Co-treatment led to additional improvement with negligible interstitial damage with no glomerular or tubular injury detected and strongly decreased 3-NT expression induced by diabetes. Conclusion: Co-treatment with both drugs exerts a synergistic protective effect against diabetic nephropathy by decreasing oxidative and nitrosative stress.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177563
Preferred drug usage among patients attending ophthalmology outpatient department for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Dehradun, Uttarakhand http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177956 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Shaktibala Dutta, Mirza Atif Beg, Shalu Bawa, Saubhagya Sindhu, Mohammad Anjoom, Sanjeev Kumar Mittal, Yogesh Kumar, Ankita Negi.
Background: Prescription auditing studies are a part of drug use studies and are beneficial in clinical practice for rational prescribing of drugs and helpful for minimizing the medication errors. These are an important tool to promote rational prescribing. Aims and Objectives: To study the drug-prescribing pattern in patients with dry eye syndrome. Materials and Methods: A drug use study was conducted in dry eye patients by the Department of Pharmacology, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Dehradun, for 1 year. A total of 393 prescriptions were evaluated for prescribing pattern by using WHO drug use indicators. Results: Of the 393 prescriptions analyzed, it was found that 852 drugs were prescribed: 484 (56.81%) were artificial tears, 160 (18.78%) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 152 (17.84%) steroids, and 56 (6.57%) belonged to “others” category. Carboxymethyl cellulose, hydoxypropyl cellulose, and polyethylene glycol were the most common artificial tears prescribed. Prescribed NSAIDs included ketorolac, bromofenac, and diclofenac whereas fluromethalone, loteprednol, and difluprednate were the most commonly prescribed steroids for the treatment of dry eye. It was found that 0.7% fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) were prescribed; 2.24 drugs were prescribed per prescription; and 56.10% drugs were prescribed from National Essential Medicine List. Conclusion: Artificial tears were the most commonly prescribed drugs for dry eye. A therapeutic audit to provide regular feedback to researchers and prescribers may encourage rational prescribing in dry eye disease.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177956
A cross-sectional study on effect of body mass index on the spectral analysis of heart rate variability http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177891 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Umme Kulsoom Sheema, Basvaraj S Malipatil.
Background: Obesity is associated with dysregulation of autonomic function. Heart rate variability (HRV) in women has been related independently to menstrual cycle, body mass index (BMI), and other factors. A reduced HRV is associated with autonomic dysregulation. Aims and Objectives: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of BMI on the analysis of HRV in young adult females. Materials and Method: A total of 60 healthy women aged 18–30 years participated in the study. Their BMI was measured after recording their height and weight using Quetelet’s index. The HRV recording of each subject was then done. Using appropriate statistical tests, the HRV was compared among the subjects of different BMI groups. Result: HRV is reduced in overweight females depicted by an increase in low frequency (LF) and low frequency / high frequency ratio in overweight females when compared to normal-weight females. Conclusion: Raised BMI is associated with reduced HRV correlates with sympathetic overactivity and sympathovagal imbalance thereby increasing the chances of cardiac autonomic dysfunction, ultimately leading to cardiovascular disease in females.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177891
A study to analyze the prevalence of nervous anastomosis (Martin–Gruber) in medical students http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177906 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Nilesh N Kate, Chandrika G Teli, Ratnesh Gajbhiye, Kondam Ambareesha, M Suresh.
Background: In nerve conduction laboratory, various types of cases are encountered. These are generally referred for electrophysiological investigation of the most common syndromes such as carpel tunnel syndrome where there is partial or total sparing of the thenar muscles from the effect of compression of their nerve supply. So for the assessment of traumatic and entrapment lesions of median and ulnar nerves, the knowledge of these anastomosis is important. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of this anastomosis in healthy individuals, to draw attention of clinicians or surgeons from neurophysiology field to this anastomosis, and to avoid misinterpretations of different studies of needle electromyography and other nerve conduction studies. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 healthy volunteers were selected from the medical students aged 17–30 years. Surface recording electrodes were placed on the hand abductor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, and the first dorsal interossei (FDI) of each subject. Using surface electrodes, we percutaneously stimulated the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist and the elbow. Rectangular pulses of 0.2 ms duration were used and the stimulus strength was supramaximal. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was recorded. CMAP from the FDI, hypothenar, and thenar muscles larger (at least 1.0 mV) on median nerve stimulation at the elbow than at the wrist and that from one or more of these sites larger (at least 1.0 mV) on stimulation of ulnar nerve at the wrist than at the elbow were accepted as indicators of the presence of the MGA. Analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0. P-value
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177906
Drug use pattern in the ear, nose, throat outpatient department of a rural tertiary-care teaching hospital http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=179210 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Sudhir L Padwal, Madhuri D Kulkarni, Vinod S Deshmukh, Jyoti R Patil, Swapnil S Jadhav, Asha D Jadhav.
Background: It is imperative to evaluate and monitor the drug use patterns from time to time and make suitable modifications in prescribing patterns to increase the therapeutic benefit and decrease the adverse effects to optimize the medical services to the patients. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present study was undertaken. Objective: To evaluate pattern of drug use in ENT (ear, nose, throat) outpatient department (OPD) of a rural tertiary care teaching hospital using WHO core drug prescribing indicators. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried for 3 months in the ENT OPD of SRTR Government Medical, Ambajogai, Beed, Maharashtra, India. Data were collected from the prescriptions written by treating surgeons and interviewing patients regarding their understanding of dosage forms. Results: A total of 3342 drugs were prescribed through 855 prescriptions with average number of drugs per prescription being 3.90 and average number of 2.5 drugs dispensed per prescription. Majority (59.64%) of the patients were male. Antibiotics were the most frequently prescribed drugs (24.86%) followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (23.60%), gastroprotective agents (22.55%), and antihistaminics (19.92%). Antibiotics were prescribed in 831 prescriptions (97.19%). Most common route of drug administration was oral (97.75%) followed by topical. Drugs were mostly (80%) prescribed by brand names. Conclusion: The present study highlights the problems of polypharmacy, overuse of brand names, and symptomatic rather than definitive approach toward patient management. Interventions to rectify overprescription of antibiotics, use of brand names, inadequate labeling of drugs are necessary to improve rational drug use. Standard treatment guidelines, hospital formulary, and educational intervention become essential to modify this behavior to benefit the patient.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=179210
Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=179961 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria.
Background: Coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are preceded by a cluster of metabolic risk factors that include hypertension, dyslipidemia, and prediabetes. The prevalence of these metabolic risk factors shows an upward trend with increasing body mass index and waist circumference. Aims and Objective: To examine cardiometabolic risk factors among bank employees. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 male bank employees. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose and lipid profile. Result: Generalized obesity and central obesity were found in 9% and 69% subjects, respectively. Nearly half of the subjects were observed to have hypertension and another one-third prehypertension. Nearly 14% subjects had T2DM. Dyslipidemia was observed in this study as high triglycerides (TGs; 10.8%) and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (10%), high total serum cholesterol (5%), and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (5%). Significant number of subjects had suboptimal lipid levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) was found to be 38%. Conclusion: Obesity and overweight are prevalent among bank employees. Central obesity and MetS are also prevalent in normal weight subjects. Obese subjects had higher levels of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and blood glucose and also had higher prevalence of MetS.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=179961
Correlation of serum uric acid and serum creatinine in hypothyroidism http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=180010 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Simbita Marwah, Mihir Mehta, Hitesh Shah, Nilayangode Haridas, Amit Trivedi.
Background: Hypothyroidism is a progressive disorder that presents with diverse degrees of thyroid failure and metabolic consequences. Purine metabolism can be affected by disturbance in thyroid hormones, which leads to alteration in the uric acid levels, leading to hyperuricemia and subsequently causing gout. Also, hemodynamic changes occur in hypothyroidism that leads to reduction in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate, which also causes increase in the levels of serum uric acid and serum creatinine. Aims and Objective: To determine whether thyroid dysfunction, subclinical and overt, has deleterious effects on renal function. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that comprised 108 individuals (56 cases and 52 controls; 52 men and 56 women) aged between 20 and 60 years. Case group comprised suspected cases of hypothyroidism. Serum TSH, T4, T3, uric acid, and creatinine were estimated after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result: Uric acid and creatinine levels were significantly elevated in case group as compared to control group (7.09 ± 0.45 and 1.52± 0.16 mg/dL versus 4.08 ± 0.25 and 0.62 ± 0.05 mg/dL, respectively; p < 0.001). There was insignificant correlation between serum uric acid and creatinine levels with hypothyroidism (r = 0.185, p = 0.172 and r = 0.082, p = 0.550). Also, there was no significant correlation between serum uric acid and creatinine levels with the age in hypothyroidism (r = 0.143; p = 0.292 and r = -20.154; p = 0.257, respectively). Conclusion: Hypothyroidism causes significant increase in serum uric acid and creatinine levels. Therefore, we would emphasize the importance of the routine evaluation of serum uric acid and creatinine levels in patients with hypothyroidism.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:36:32 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=180010
Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury in the Roman Army http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=188634 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Balkan Military Medical Review
Valentine John Belfiglio.
Almost 25,000 U.S. military veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan suffer from traumatic brain injury. This is a cross-cultural study designed to show that trepanations performed by Roman military physicians Aulus Celsus and Claudius Galen, based upon earlier work by Hippocrates, inspired thousands of physicians throughout Europe, and their teachings established the field of neurosurgery in the classical world and laid the foundation for medical and neurological practice for the next 1,500 years.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:44:27 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=188634
Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and an Elevation of Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants in Management of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders and Traumatic Brain Injury http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181002 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Balkan Military Medical Review
Kedar N Prasad.
Abstract: Despite animal and human studies and improved understanding of the symptoms and cellular damage, current managements of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs) and traumatic brain injury (mild TBI and severe TBI) remain unsatisfactory. We identified three common biochemical defects increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and glutamate release that contribute to the initiation and progression of these diseases. Therefore, attenuation of these biochemical abnormalities may reduce the progression, and in combination with standard care, may improve the management of these neurological disorders. This review proposes that an elevation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and phase-2-detoxifying enzymes, and dietary and endogenous antioxidants simultaneously is essential for attenuating oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and glutamate release optimally. The levels of antioxidants can be increased by supplementation; however, an activation of a nuclear transcriptional factor Nrf2 and its binding with antioxidant response elements (AREs) is required for increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and phase-2-detoxifying enzymes. This review briefly discusses the regulation of Nrf2 activation, and identifies agents that activate Nrf2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and-independent mechanisms. Studies on the effects of individual antioxidants in PTSD and TBI are presented to show that the use of a single agent cannot activate Nrf2 and enhance the levels of dietary and endogenous antioxidants at the same time. The proposed mixture of micronutrients can achieve the above goal, and thereby, may reduce the progression, and in combination with standard care, improve the management of PTSD and TBI.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:43:16 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181002
Pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Isolated Hypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism: A Single Center Experience http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=188853 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Dilek Arpaci, Neslihan Cuhaci, Didem Ozdemir, Mina Gulfem Kaya, Mehmet Gumus, Reyhan Ersoy, Bekir Cakir.
Hypogonadism is a result of testicular/ovarian failure and/or insufficient pituitary stimulation. Various hypothalamo-pituitary abnormalities or lesions can contribute to hypogonadism. Benign or malign tumoural lesions of cellar or paracellar region, may lead to hypogonadism. Therefore, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is needed in patients with hypogonadism. In our study, we aimed to investigate our hypothalamo-pituitary MRI findings of hypogonadal patients. We evaluated 42 isolated hypogonadal patients followed in our clinic. These patients’ pituitary MRI findings were analyzed retrospectively. 80.9 % of isolated hypogonadotrophic patients’ were male, 19.1 % were female. Pituitary MRI findings of isolated hypogonadotrophic patients revealed that; 59.5% (n=25) were normal, 16.7 % (n=7) pituitary microadenoma, 11.9% (n=5) partial empty sella, 4.7% (n=2) pituitary macroadenoma, 2.4% empty sella (n=1), 2.4% (n=1) ectopic neuropituitary, and 2.4% (n=1) empty sella plus ectopic neuropituitary together. In half of the patients with isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, pituitary MRI findings may be normal. In these patients, if clinic and laboratory results are harmonious, to determine the diagnosis dynamic tests are required and appropriate therapy must be done, even if pituitary MRI is normal.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:42:04 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=188853
Survey on the Pharmaceutical Quality of Herbal Medicines Sold in Nigeria http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=174451 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Philip F. Builders, Chris A. Alalor, John A. Avbunudiogba, Isreal E. Justice.
In recent times the apparent upsurge in the popularity and use of herbal medicines can be related to the success in its use for the management of certain important diseases, experimental proof of efficacy and safety, enhanced dosage form design as well as better tolerance. In this study the quality of some herbal medicines sold in Nigeria has been evaluated for basic pharmaceutical quality and compliance to regulatory guidelines. Samples of sixteen frequently used herbal products were collected from Pharmacies and patent medicine stores and evaluated. The dosage form type, organoleptic properties, moisture content, weight/volume uniformity as well as compliance to regulatory guidelines were among the parameters evaluated. Sixty percent of the samples were liquids, thirty percent were oral bulk powders and ten percent were capsules. None of the products complied completely with the regulatory requirement stipulated while only ten percent of the products samples complied with the basic phyisico-chemical properties required for pharmaceutical quality. Thus, there is a strong need for the regulatory authorities to ensure more stringent quality surveillance and enforcement of guidelines to ensure that herbal medicines are of standard quality.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=174451
Prevention of Peri-Anesthetic Hypothermia by Regulating Cutaneous Micro-Circulation: a Rodent Model http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=176349 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Nachum Nesher, Inna Frolkis, Amir Ganiel, Yanai Ben-Gal, Yosef Paz, Kramer Amir, Dimitri Pevni.
Objectives: Patients undergoing surgery involving general anesthesia often suffer from hypothermia, which is associated with various complications. External heating and warming are used to combat hypothermia throughout surgery; however their effectiveness is often limited. In this study we investigated a unique approach utilizing a natural physiological mechanism; protective cutaneous vasoconstriction for reducing peri-anesthetic hypothermia. The concept is based on the dermal application of a cream with vasoconstrictive alpha adrenergic agonist properties designed for this purpose; “thermal cream” (TC). Topical application of the cream was tested in a rodent model. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of a topical vasoconstrictive application in reducing peri-anesthetic hypothermia. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar rats were divided into two experimental arms: application of thermal cream was compared to application of a base cream without any active compound (control) under the same conditions. The rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 21ºC. Their skin and core temperatures were measured and compared before, during and after anesthesia. Results: The rats underwent rapid hypothermia immediately after the induction of anesthesia. The rats treated with thermal cream had a significantly higher core body temperature than the controls throughout the entire anesthetic period. This difference was even greater when the cream had been applied before the animal underwent anesthesia. Conclusions: The thermal cream was effective in attenuating peri-anesthetic-induced hypothermia in a rodent model. It was easy to apply with no immediate mortality or other major adverse events.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=176349
Drug-like properties of potential anti-cancer compounds from Cameroonian flora: A virtual studies http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177234 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Ibezim Akachukwu, Onyia Kelechi, Ntie-Kang Fidele, Nwodo Ngozi Justina.
Many drugs with interesting properties fail to enter the market because of poor physico-chemical/drug-like properties. Therefore, this paper is on the in-silico study of the drug-likeness of 195 anti-cancer metabolites from Cameroonian flora. Our result revealed that our 76.50% of our dataset were drug-like according Lipinski's rule of five. Also, our dataset showed percentage enhencement in drug-likeness our Dictionary of Natural Products dataset. This makes our dataset a suitable point to kick-off natural products drug discovery project.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=177234
Effect of 8 Weeks Endurance Training on Lipid Profile and Testosterone Levels in Young Judukas http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=178322 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Arshin Abbaspour Seidi, Hassan Amouzad Mahdirejei, Sajedeh Fadaei Reyhan Abadei, Negar Eshaghi Gorji, Hamzeh Amouzad Mahdirejei, . Zabiholla Shahrestani.
ABSTRACT The present study examined the effects of endurance training on lipid profile and testosterone levels in young male judokas. 18 judokas aged 18 to 21 years old participated in the study and were randomly divided into two groups: Exercise (n=9) and control group (n=9). The levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, TC, TG, and TT were measured in the blood samples of the subjects. No significant difference was detected in serum LDL-C in three stages of measurement (i.e. pre-, mid-, and post-test) (p=0.47); however, a significant difference was obtained in serum HDL-C during the three stages (p=0.03). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in serum TC (p=0.78) and TG (p=0.42). In Exercise group, TT levels was 18.98±12.45 in pre-test and it reached 20.56±5.76, but, it again reduced to 19.23±3.94 in Control group, TT levels was 18.76±6.98 in pre-test and it reached 20.35±14.87 while it dropped to 19.12±4.63. There were no significant difference between the stages in both groups (p>0.05).
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=178322
Virtual screening of co-formers for ketoprofen co-crystallization and the molecular properties of the co-crystal http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=179025 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Siswandi Siswandi, Taofik Rusdiana, Jutti Levita.
Ketoprofen or [2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid] is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory and analgesic agent. The positive qualities of ketoprofen are based on optimal physicochemical and structural characteristics, its ability to penetrate into and accumulate in the inflammation centers and compatibility with other classes of drugs. This compound is practically insoluble in water, therefore as most of NSAID drugs, it is categorized as Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II. A widely used to enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs is co-crystallization. A co-crystal is a multi-component crystal which involves non-covalent interactions between API and its co-formers. In this work, we developed virtual screening of co-formers for ketoprofen by employing molecular docking method. AutoDock was used for docking. Parameters observed were type and energy (Ei) of interaction. The work was continued by co-crystallization process and solubility assay of the mixtures according to Higuchi and Connor method using UV spectrophotometer. Based on molecular docking, the best co-former is saccharin (Ei = -3.14 kcal/mol). The docking result fits the solubility assay of the ketoprofen-saccharin co-crystal (300.62 μg/mL in water or 256.54% increasing of solubility compared to ketoprofen). Ketoprofen co-crystal shows better curve (90.15 % in 60 minutes) than ketoprofen (78.87 % in 60 minutes). Co-crystallization of ketoprofen with saccharin increases the dissolution profile of ketoprofen.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=179025
Pharmacoeconomics of Selected Essential Medicines for Common Ailments in Sonipat District, Haryana, India http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=179958 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Anjali Goyal, Neeraj Gilhotra.
ABSTRACT Inappropriate access of essential medicines contributes substantially out-of-budget expense. Out-of-pocket expenditure makes a vital (up to 70%) health expenditure in India. This research study was conducted to investigate the comparative price to patient of selected essential medicines used in treatment of selected common ailments in Sonipat city. A research study on a price-to-be-paid to patient of selected essential medicines used in treatment of selected common ailments was conducted. Standardized methodology of World Health Organization and Health Action International was employed. Prices were compared to an International Reference Price. The study was conducted on all the two hundred retail pharmacy outlets attached to all residential areas of Sonipat city. The difference between lowest price and highest price (of available medicine) ranged from 0.30 – 40% in case of antimicrobials and 0.17 – 3.4% in case of antiulcers, antiemetics and analgesics. Dissemination of well documented information on affordability to medicine consumers may enhance consumer demand for lower price medicine and thus may serve to enhance the availability of demanded medicine in all the areas of Sonipat city.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=179958
Antioxidant, antimicrobial activities of flavonoids glycoside from Leucaena leucocephala leaves http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=183185 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Reda S. Mohammed, Sahar S. El Souda, Hanan A.A. Taie, Maysa E.Moharam, Kamel H. Shaker.
The study aimed to identify the chemical constituents of Leucaeana leucocephala leaves and evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extract and compounds. An acylated flavanol glycoside, quercetin -3-O-(2''-trans-p-coumaryl)-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'''→6'')-β-glucopyranoside (1) in addition to quercetin-3-O-α –rhamnopyranosyl-(1'''→2'')-β–glucopyranoside(2), quercetin-7-O-α–rhamnopyranosyl-(1'''→2'')-β–glucopyranoside(3),quercetin-3-O-α- rhamnopyranoside(4), quercetin-3-O-β–glucopyranoside(5) vitexin(6) isovitexin (7) and quercetin(8) were isolated for the first time from the Leucaeana leucocephala. The antioxidant activity of the extract and the isolated compounds 1, 3 & 4 were evaluated by Reducing Power, FRAP, DPPH, Metal chelating and ABTS assays. Compound (3) recorded the highest antioxidant activity in comparison with the extract and other compounds. The extract and compound 1, 2, 3 and 5 were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Both the extract and compound 1 have significant activity against gm-ve bacteria, moderate to gm +ve and Candida and inactive towards fungi. The structures of compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. L. leucocephala possess good antioxidant, antibacterial properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants and have to be investigated for anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=183185
Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of medicinal plants used to treat typhoid fever in Bamboutos division, West Cameroon http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181287 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Tsobou Roger, Mapongmetsem Pierre-Marie, Voukeng Kenfack Igor, Van Damme Patrick.
This study was undertaken to document how typhoid is traditionally treated in Bamboutos division. For this purpose thirty eight plants species were selected. These plants underwent phytochemical screening and antibacterial study using standard procedures. The antibacterial tests using agar well diffusion method and microdilution assay indicated that, all the thirty eight plant samples showed activity against S. typhi, while S. paratyphi A and S. paratyphi B reacted on fifteen and fourteen plants respectively. The highest zones of inhibition were obtained from Senna alata with diameter of 24, 22.5 and 20.5 mm against S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B and S. typhi respectively at 160 mg/ml concentration. The lowest MIC values 128 µg/ml was exhibited by the extract of Vitex doniana against Salmonella paratyphi A. Bactericidal activity was obtained by the extract of Carica papaya, Pseudarthria confertiflora, Moringa oleifera and Harungana madagascariensis. Antibacterial screened of Pseudartthria confertiflora was reported for the first time. Annona muricata, Laggera alata, Spathodea campanulata, Cordia platythyrsa, Carica papaya, Terminalia glaucescens and Pseudarthria confertiflora gave positive results for all secondary metabolites while other plants contained two to five metabolites. The presence of these secondary metabolites probably contributes to the antibacterial potential of these plants. This finding supported the uses of these plants for treatment of typhoid fever and other infectious diseases in the study area.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181287
Formulation and characterization of ternary complex of poorly soluble duloxetine hydrochloride http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181001 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Pinakin Pandya, Narendra Kumar Pandey, Sachin Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar.
Duloxetine hydrochloride (DXH) suffers from poor solubility and thereby poor absorption, which ultimately leads to poor bioavailability. In present study, an attempt has been made to formulate and characterize duloxetine hydrochloride (DXH) complex, using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and different hydrophilic polymers in order to enhance its solubility and dissolution rate. Phase solubility study was used to investigate the interaction of the drug in binary systems (DXH-β-CD) as well as ternary systems (DXH-β-CD-hydrophilic polymer). It was observed that solubilization of DXH by β-CD was further enhanced by using HPMC K4M at 0.1% w/v concentration. Several methods were used to prepare ternary complex of DXH-β-CD-HPMC K4M. Ternary complex prepared by co-evaporation method containing DXH-β-CD-HPMC K4M in the ratio of 1:1.10:0.01 has shown the fastest dissolution rate (53.65 ± 2.83% in 5 min) as compared to pure DXH (3.03 ± 1.88% in 5 min) as well as other methods used to prepare these complexes. The prepared ternary complex system was characterized by the help of X-ray powder diffraction studies, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that enhancement in solubility as well as dissolution rate of DXH was due to formation of ternary complex system.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181001
Extractive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Some Antipsychotic Drugs Using Eriochrome Black T http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181273 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Akram M. El-Didamony, Sameh M. Hafeez, Ismail I. Ali.
Simple, accurate, precise, and rapid extractive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of four antipsychotics drugs, namely sulpiride (SUP), olanzapine (OLP), clozapine (CLP) and aripiprazole (ARP) both in tablets and in biological fluids. The method was based on the formation of red colored ion-pair complex between the studied drugs and eriochrome black T (EBT) with absorption maxima at 514 nm. The stoichiometry of the complexes in either case was found to be 1: 1 and the conditional stability constant (Kf) of the complexes have been calculated. Reaction conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum color intensity. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 4-30, 4-20, 2-18 and 4-26 µg/ml with SUP, OLP, CLP and ARP, respectively. Various analytical parameters have been evaluated and the results have been validated by satistical data. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablets containing the drugs and the results were in good agreement with those obtained with reported methods. The proposed method was further applied to the determination of the studied drugs in spiked human serum and urine. A proposal for the reaction pathway was postulated.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181273
Effect of chronic Consumption of two Forms of palm oil diet on serum Electrolytes, Creatinine and urea in rabbits http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181716 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Elemi J. Ani, Victor U. Nna, Daniel U. Owu, Eme E. Osim.
Palm oil is one of the most widely employed cooking oils in Nigeria today. This study compares the effects of long term consumption of the two forms of palm oil – fresh palm oil (FPO) and thermally oxidized palm oil (TPO) on serum electrolytes, creatinine and urea, which gives vital information on the state of the renal system. Eighteen male New Zealand rabbits weighing 750 – 1000 g were used for this study. They animals were randomly assigned one of three groups (n = 6) thus; control group, FPO fed group and TPO fed group. The control group received animal feed and clean water only. Fresh palm oil group received animal feed mixed with fresh palm oil in the ratio 85:15g respectively, TPO fed group received animal feed mixed with thermoxidised palm oil in the ratio 85:15g respectively. The feeding lasted for 6 months. Food intake, water intake and body weight were measured daily. At the end of the feeding period, the animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and blood was collected for assessment of serum electrolytes, creatinine and urea. Results obtained showed that serum concentration of sodium was significantly (p
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181716
A Simplified Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for Simultaneous Determination of Pyrimethamine, Sulphadoxine and Artesunate in Human Plasma http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181660 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
S M Sandhya, P S Shijikumar.
This paper presents the development of a new LC-MS method for the determination of pyrimethamine, sulphadoxine and artesunate in human plasma. The analytes were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The analytes and internal standard artemether were separated on a Phenomenex C18 column using gradient elution with 20mM ammonium acetate (mobile phase A) and methanol (mobile phase B) both containing 0.5% acetic acid at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The calibration curves were constructed over the range of 5-30 ng/ml for pyrimethamine, 50-300 ng/ml for sulphadoxine and 25-150 ng/ml for artesunate respectively. Within day and between-day precision and accuracy did not exceed 8%. All the three analytes were found to be stable in plasma samples with no evidence of degradation during three freeze-thaw cycles and three months storage in -20 °C. According to the validation results, the proposed method was found to be specific, accurate, precise and could be applied to the simultaneous quantitative analysis of pyrimethamine, sulphadoxine and artesunate in human plasma.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=181660
Influence of APOA5 (rs662799 and rs3135506) gene polymorphism in acute myocardial infarction patients and its association with basic coronary artery disease risk factors http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=183820 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Rohit Kumar Srivastava, Pratibha Singh, Pratima Verma, Rishi Sethi, Arti Verma, Wahid Ali, Sunita Tiwari.
The aim of this study was to examine the allele and genotype of APOA5 -1131T/C (rs662799) and APOA5-56C/G (rs3135506) gene in acute myocardial (AMI) case and control subjects. 304 case and 304 controls were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted using salting out method followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction endonuclease digestion (using MseI for -1131T/C and Taq1 for -56C/G). Digested PCR products were identified using agarose gel electrophoresis and stained with ethidium bromide. There was a strong association between APOA5 -1131T/C (TC vs. TT, OR= 1.58 and CC vs. TT OR= 2.43) and APOA5 -56C/G (CG vs. CC, OR= 1.64 and GG vs. CC, OR= 2.44) polymorphisms with AMI. Out of the six potential risk factors for coronary artery disease, only smoking, diabetes and hypertension were found to be associated with APOA5 gene and increased the risk of AMI. Smoking was the most prominent risk factor for both the genes. Other risk factors like history of dyslipidemia, obesity and family history of coronary artery disease did not reveal any potential association with the candidate gene. Our data demonstrate that both the SNPs in the APOA5 gene (-1131T/C, and -56C/G) were strongly associated with AMI in north Indian population.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=183820
In-vitro Assessment of Effectiveness and Photostability Avobenzone in Cream Formulations by Combination Ethyl Ascorbic acid and alpha Tocopherol Acetate http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=182998 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Marline Abdassah, Ratih Aryani, Emma Surachman, Muchtaridi Muchtaridi.
Avobenzone is UVA sunscreen active substances, which are unstable when exposed to UV radiation, especially UVA. The aim of this study is to to determine the effectiveness and photo stability avobenzone when combined with ethyl ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol acetate with various concentrations of ethyl ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol by in vitro using spectrophotometric method. The photostability study of the eight variations of formula showed that the formula 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 had significant differences with Formula 1 (p
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=182998
Evaluation as antioxidant agents of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives: effects of essential functional groups http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=183385 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Ahmet Cetin, Ibrahim Halil Geçibesler.
A series of 1,2,4-triazole derivative compounds substituted with groups of phenol and pyridine were synthesized in high yields and screened against several antioxidant activity parameters such as DPPH, ABTS, metal chelating, reducing power and the total antioxidant activity. The compounds showed better than expected antioxidant activity between the studied biological activity parameters. Among these, compound G (2-(5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl) phenol) had a high total antioxidant activity potential with value of 232.12±6.89 mmol/ml. Also showed fairly good ABTS cation radical and DPPH radical scavenging activity with values of IC50 = 4.59±4.19 and IC50 = 7.12±2.32 µg/mL respectively. Further, The antioxidant potential of heterocyclic compounds that 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing different functional groups were compared with various tests performed and has been shown to increase the activity of electron donating groups. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that phenol and pyridine substituted 1,2,4-Triazole compounds would be a better prospective in the development of antioxidant agent.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=183385
Evaluation of Anticlastogenic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract against Cyclophosphamide induced Chromosomal aberration in Swiss albino Mice http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184058 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Varsha Sharma, R. C. Agrawal.
Background: Indian subcontinent is a vast repository of medicinal plants that are used in traditional medical treatments. Various indigenous systems such as Siddha, Ayurveda, Unani and Allopathy use several plant species to treat different ailments. Ayurveda includes diet and herbal remedies, while emphasizing the body, mind and spirit in disease prevention and treatment. Since origin of human’s life, medicinal plants continue to play a curative and therapeutic role in preserving human health against disease. Herbal plants have been a rich source of medicines because they produce a host of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defenses against predation or infection. Objective: The study was aimed towards evaluation of Immuno enhancing potential of hydromethanolic root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra through the prevention of Mutagenecity caused by Clastogenic or Chemotherapeutic agents in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. Methods: For the assessment of Anti-clastogenic efficacy of G. glabra hydromethanolic root extract, the Bone marrow Chromosomal aberration assay was used and the single i.p. of G. glabra extract given at the doses of 300, 450 and 600mg/kg body weight, 24 hours prior the administration of Cyclophosphamide at the dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. Results: The present investigation revealed that, the doses of 450 and 600mg/kg body wt. provided significant protection against Cyclophosphamide induced Chromosomal aberration in the bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A dose dependent inhibition was observed which was statistically significant (p
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184058
Chemical constituents from Piper caninum and antibacterial activity http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184810 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan Salleh, Farediah Ahmad, Khong Heng Yen.
Six flavonoids and two amides, characterized as 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone (1), 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (2), 4’,5,7-trimethoxyflavone (3), 4’-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavone (4), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (5), 2’-hydroxy-4’,6’-dimethoxychalcone (6), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E,14Z)-eicosatrienamide (7) and N-isobutyl-15-(3’,4’-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2E,4E,12E-pentadecatrienamide (8) have been isolated and identified from the stem of Piper caninum. The identification of all compounds was achieved by physical properties and spectroscopically. These data were also confirmed by comparison with previously reported spectral data. Antibacterial activity of the extracts and isolated compounds was determined by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All of the extracts displayed weak antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Compound (7) showed good activity towards Bacillis subtilis with MIC value of 125 μg/mL. Flavonoid compounds with high content in P. caninum can probably be used as a chemical marker for this Piper species.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184810
Effect of critical medium components and culture conditions on antitubercular pigment production from novel Streptomyces sp D25 isolated from Thar desert, Rajasthan http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184101 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Radhakrishnan Manikkam, Gopikrishnan Venugopal, Balagurunathan Ramasamy, Vanaja Kumar.
Effect of culture conditions and critical medium components on antitubercular pigment production from novel Streptomyces sp D25 isolated from Thar desert, Rajasthan was investigated. Antitubercular pigment from Streptomyces sp. D25 was produced by Agar Surface Fermentation (ASF) using yeast extract malt extract agar (YEME) as a basal medium. Effect of incubation period, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source, minerals and sodium chloride concentration was studied by adopting one-variable-at-a-time method. Crude pigment produced under different conditions was extracted solid-liquid extraction method using ethyl acetate. Responses measured include the growth rate, quantity of crude extract and activity against S. aureus MTCC96 and M. tuberculosis H37Rv at 100 µg concentrations. Growth and pigment production was correlated with the bioactivity. Of the various conditions tested, maximum growth, pigmentation and bioactivity was observed on 6th day of incubation. Of the various medium components tested, 1% glucose, fructose and malt extract, pH 7 and 9, temperature 300C and 400C, 0.1% KNo3 and 0 – 5% NaCl was found to influence the growth, bioactive pigment production and antimicrobial bioactivity. Further statistical based optimization is in progress to prove the effect of interaction of the above variables on antitubercular pigment production from Streptomyces sp D25.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184101
Neuroprotective effects of Indigofera tinctoria on noise stress affected Wistar albino rat brain http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184287 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Sakthivel Srinivasan, Wankupar Wankhar, Sheeladevi Rathinasamy, Ravindran Rajan.
The objective of the study is to evaluate genomic DNA damage, locomotor, anxiety and free radical scavenging enzymes level in brain after exposure of noise stress. Noise stress was done by broadband white noise generator and Indigofera tinctoria (300 mg/Kg .b.w.) administered orally. Noise exposure could increase superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, Nitric oxide, Glutathione S transferase and decrease reduced glutathione, Glutathione Reductase, Vitamin C, and protein thiols suggesting that oxidative imbalance in brain regions and adrenal when expose to noise. The elevated plus maze shows significant decrease in the number of entries and time spent in the open arm. In the rota rod, significant decrease in time spent in rota rod. Significant increase in time taken to cross in seconds and number of slips in narrow beam. Noise exposed brain region (Cerebellum, Hypothalamus and hippocampus) showed a significant increase in the DNA ladder pattern. This outcome of the results suggest that noise stress affect genomic DNA, biochemical, locomotor activity and anxiety disorder, in rat. However, oral administration of I.tinctoria significantly prevented noise stress induced changes. These results conclude that I.tinctoria may possess neuroprotective effects and the antioxidant property of the plant may have resulted in its therapeutic efficacy.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184287
Phytochemical screening and evaluation of analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of Phaseolus vulgaris linn., seeds in rodents http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184235 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
M. R. Pradeepkumar, Shrinivas D. Joshi, V. H. Kulkarni, Chetan Savant.
With an objective of developing some novel analgesic and antiinflammatory natural agents with fast acting and low toxicity profile here in, the different extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris (Linn) seeds were evaluated for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities using glacial acetic acid induced writhing and carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method respectively. For screening of the extracts for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities aspirin and diclofenac were used as standard drugs respectively. Petroleum ether extract exhibited significant analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The petroleum ether extract can be considered as a potential candidate for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The presence of steroids and flavonoids in petroleum ether extract of Phaseolus vulgaris Linn., seeds could be attributed for the analgesic and antiinflammatory activities.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184235
Synthesis and trypanocidal activity of salicylhydrazones and p-tosylhydrazones of S-(+)-carvone and arylketones on African trypanosomiasis http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184912 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Bienvenu GLINMA, Fernand A. GBAGUIDI, Urbain C. KASSEHIN, Salomé D.S. KPOVIESSI, Alban HOUNGBEME, Horrhus D. HOUNGUE, Georges C. ACCROMBESSI, Jacques H. POUPAERT.
Hydrazones are nowadays considered to be good candidates for various pharmaceutical applications. Here, we have synthesized two series of hydrazones: salicylhydrazones (GS1-4) and p-tosylhydrazones (GT1-4) from S-(+)-carvone and three aryketones with good yields (57-91%). Molecules were characterized by elemental analyses; TLC, NMR 1H, NMR 13C and MS. Submitted, in vitro, to their antiparasitic testing on Trypanosoma brucei brucei, and toxicity on Artemia salina Leach, all compounds except GT2 showed significant antitrypanosomal activity IC50 ranging from 1 to 34 micromolar (µM). Among them, 2-acetynaphthalene salicylhydrazone GS4 (IC50 = 1.97 ± 0.42 µM) and 7-methoxy-1-tetralone p-tosylhydrazone GT3 (IC50 =7.98 ± 1.65 µM) exhibited good trypanocidal activity and the other are moderates on parasite; when the compounds GS1, GT3 and GT4 presented toxic activity on larvae. In agreement to their selectivity index, which is greater than 1 (SI > 1), products turn out quite selective on the parasite: a series of salicylhydrazones revealed more selective (SI ≥ 11), especially GS4 (SI = 157) than the series of p-tosylhydrazones showed 1 ≤ SI ≤ 22. The synthesized compounds clearly displayed significant selective pharmaceutical activities on the parasite tested. Compounds developing could open promising route to news drug-candidates.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=184912
Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Profile of Leaves and Twigs Essential oils of Moroccan Pistacia lentiscus L. http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=187335 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Taoufik Haloui, Abdellah Farah, Mounyr Balouiri, Marwa Chraibi, Mouhcine Fadil, Kawtar Fikri Benbrahim, Aziz Belrhiti Alaoui.
In order to increase the Moroccan Pistacia lentiscus L. value, the antibacterial activity of its twig’s and leave’s essential oils was evaluated. The study of antibacterial activity was performed on Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the microdilution method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of leaves and twigs essential oils against the four studied strains were determined and showed that both essential oils tested have remarkable antibacterial activity. Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive strain against the two essential oils while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most resistant one.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=187335
Identification and Antibiogram Profile of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus from Dental Caries Subjects http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=188360 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Hamzah Abdulrahman Salman, R. Senthikumar.
Dental caries is one of the oldest disease in the world and its causative agent is mutans streptococci (MS). Among MS, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are implicated in caries active subjects. The objective of this study was to identify and determine the antibiogram profile of S. mutans and S. sobrinus isolates. The dental plaque samples were collected from caries active subjects (aged 35-44 years) and later identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. Out of 65 clinical isolates 36 (55.38%) were S. mutans and 5 (7.69%) were S. sobrinus. Antibiogram profiling was performed to determine the susceptibility of 6 β-Lactam antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, cephalothin, cefazolin and methicillin) and 2 non β-Lactam antibiotics (erythromycin and chloramphenicol) by disc diffusion method. All S. mutans and S. sobrinus isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics employed in this study. Penicillin and ampicillin were the most effective antibiotics against S. mutans and S. sobrinus isolates and no resistance found. The study concludes that all the isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics, and suggests that taking extra precaution while prescribing antibiotics will maintain the bacteria with less resistance. It also recommends to use an alternative prevention, such as a plant extract to avoid upcoming resistance.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:28:13 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=188360
Leydig cell tumor of ovary with primary hyperparathyroidism: A rare association http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=189030 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Suhitha Chittamuri, Mythili Ayyagari, Bhagyalakshmi Atla, Subrahmanyam A.V. Kandregula.
Leydig cell tumors of ovary are extremely rare sex cord stromal tumors that account for
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 04:08:51 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=189030
A rare case of herniation of liver through incision of cabg: A case report and review of literature http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=189414 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Sharique Ansari, Tanveer Parvez Shaikh, Nisha Mandhane, Sandesh Deolekar, Sangram Karandikar.
Herniation of liver through an incision of previous surgery is a very rare phenomena. Here we present a case of herniation of part of left lobe of liver through a defect in the anterior abdominal wall due to previous coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) surgery. Up till now only two cases have been reported for liver herniation through scar of previous of CABG surgery and this would be the third case as per our knowledge.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 03:55:34 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=189414
A case report: primary CNS angiitis http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=188903 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Madhuri P. Holay, Prasad D. Game, Sandip Kharkar, Piyush Chudalwar.
The primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is an entity with a very low incidence and prevalence. It affects small and medium sized arteries of the brain parenchyma, spinal cord and leptomeniges resulting in CNS dysfunction. It is defined by inflammation of the cerebral vasculature without angiitis of other organ. Its clinical manifestations are very heterogeneous and make clinical diagnosis difficult. In most cases, a brain biopsy is required. Only the clinical suspicion and the ability to recognize the possible clinical and imagenological patterns of presentation make an accurate diagnosis possible. We hereby report a case of Primary angiitis of CNS in 35 year old right handed male who presented with ischemic stroke with Left Hemiplegia. The diagnosis of PACNS was made after ruling out most of the causes of secondary CNS angiitis.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 03:45:38 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=188903
Primary cutaneous lymphoma of scalp in a child: a case report http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=189269 2015-07-02T11-16-41Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
K. Satya Sri, A. Bhagya Lakshmi.
CCutaneous lymphomas are a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative disorders with involvement of skin and form a separate group under Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Skin may be involved along with other organs but if the initial manifestation is in the skin, it is referred to as primary cutaneous lymphoma (PCL). One year eight months child brought with a scalp swelling of three months duration. Histopathology revealed a lymphoma and immuno- histochemistry studies were positive for T-cell lymphoma. The case is presented due to the rarity of primary cutaneous lymphoma at the age of one year eight months.
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Thu, 02 Jul 2015 03:37:25 GMT -08:00 http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=189269