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Toxicity status and anti-ulcerative potential of Sanseviera trifasciata leaf extract in wistar rats

Osaseaga Macdonald Ighodaro; Abiola Muhammad Adeosun; Barinemene Francis Ojiko; Abeeb Taiwo Akorede; Oyindamola Fuyi-Williams.

Abstract
Aims: The lethal dose (LD50) and anti-ulcerative potentials of Sansevieria trifasciata (ST) leaf extract were investigated. Methods: LD50 was determined through two routes of administration (intraperitoneal and oral) using the method of Lorke. The anti-ulcerative activity was evaluated in indomethacin-induced ulcer model (40 mg/kg BW, i.p, single dose) against a reference drug, Cimetidine (100 mg/kg BW, per ox (p.o)). ST was assessed at two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg BW, p.o). Treatments were done twice daily at 8 h interval for 7 days prior to indomethacin injection. Results: The intraperitoneal (i.p) LD50 was determined as 774.60 mg/kg BW and oral administration of the extract at 18,000 mg/kg BW dosage did not cause any negative behavioral changes in the animals, and no mortality was recorded after 24h of the experiment. ST- pre-treated animals showed some improvement against indomethacin-induced ulceration. The extract was able to an extent prevent indomethacin-induced reduction in gastric volume (36.1 %), free acidity (55.3 %), total acidity (35.6 %) while minimizing increase in pH by (13.3 %). Moreover, the extract showed 17.92% and 14.96 % ulcer-protective ability at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW respectively. The phytochemical analysis of ST extract revealed the presence of phytoconstituents such as glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, Anthraquinone and glycosides. Conclusions: Sansevieria trifasciata apparently has a promising anti-ulcerative potential, and is safe for use in folk medicine. This valuable medicinal property is probably due to the array of important phytochemicals contained in the plant as observed in this study. However, further study involving bioassay-guided identification of the main anti-ulcerative compound in ST is required to establish the use of the plant as a viable anti-ulcerative agent.

Key words: Sansevieria trifasciata;gastric ulcer;toxicity status;indomethacin;Wistar rats



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