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Original Research

. 2017; 17(2): 42-48

Characteristics and outcome of hemolytic uremic syndrome in Sudanese children in a single Centre in Khartoum State

Eltigani Mohamed Ahmed Ali; Nagmelddin Mohamed Abbakar; Mohamed Babikir Abdel Raheem; Rashid Abdelrahman Ellidir.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is one of the important causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Proposed prognostic features are controversial. We reviewed, retrospectively, the records of children with HUS seen at Soba hospital, Khartoum (2004-2012). We aimed to study demographics, clinical/laboratory features, outcome and prognostic risk factors. Thirty-nine children with HUS were recorded; 59% had diarrhoea positive (D+) and 41% diarrhoea negative (D−) HUS. The mean age was 65.4 months and males were 61.5%. At the acute phase seizures, coma, anuria/oliguria and hypertension were present in 25%, 17.9%, 51.3% and 53.8% respectively. Severe anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis were present in 71.8%, 97.4%, and
28.2% respectively. On discharge, hypertension was detected in 23.1%. Clinical and laboratory features were not significantly different in D+ and D− cases (P > 0.05 for all parameters). Dialysis was undertaken in 84.6% and acute mortality was 12.8% being significantly higher in D+ (P = 0.002). Demographic, clinical and laboratory features, late referral or need for dialysis were not significantly associated with higher risk of acute mortality (p > 0.05 for all). At short-term follow up (mean period ± SD of 18.54 ± 13.21 months), 51.3% had complete renal recovery, 15.4% CKD 3-4, 12.8% CKD 5 requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT), and 20.5% died. Higher mean serum creatinine and hypertension on discharge were risk factors for adverse outcome (CKD5 requiring RRT or death), P = 0.011 and 0.00 respectively. In spite of institution of RRT and supportive therapy, our data showed less favourable outcome of HUS.

Key words: Acute kidney injury;Chronic kidney disease;Children;Hemolytic uremic syndrome;Outcome;Sudan

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