Objective: The effects of external cooling and Ca(2+) administration on the parameters of immune response were studied in normotensive and hypertensive rats.
Methods: Immune response, antigen binding (rosette forming cells), and antibody formation (plaque forming cells) in spleen and circulating antibodies in blood (hemagglutinins) were studied in rats in thermoneutral conditions and under cold exposure without and after preliminary application of Ca(2+) ions.
Results: The current experiments demonstrated that under thermoneutral conditions the difference between hypertensive and normotensive rats in immune response parameters was small. There was only an increase (by 16%) in the number of antibody binding cells in spleen. The suppressive effect of deep cooling on immune response was attenuated in the hypertensives compared to the normotensives and it was more pronounced for antibody formation in spleen.
In thermoneutral conditions, while not altering antibody formation, administered Ca(2+) enhanced antigen binding, although to a greater extent in the hypertensive animals. In normotensive rats, administered Ca(2+) weakened the suppressive effect of deep cooling on antigen binding and antibody formation in spleen and hemagglutinins. In the hypertensive rats, deep cooling on the background of administered Ca(2+) slightly, if at all, affected antibody formation, but the suppressive effect on antigen binding was enhanced.
Conclusion: The obtained facts evidence that under hypertension, profound changes affecting not only the circulatory but other physiological systems take place. Although in thermoneutral conditions arterial hypertension does not lead to changes in the examined parameters of the immune response, additional effects (in our case Ca(2+) iontophoresis and deep cooling) reveal significant changes in the formation of the immune processes. It is noteworthy that some calcium-dependent mechanisms of immune response development can possibly be blocked by cold.
Arterial hypertension; Calcium; Cold; Immune response