The aim of the paper is to evaluate the economic thought of W. Petty (1623-1687) in the context of relationship with the mercantilist thought. The main idea of the paper generally relies on Pettys status in the history of economic thought and particularly focus on a specific question: Whether he was a mercantilist philosopher or not? This paper starts with the traditional definition of mercantilism. The distinctive feature of heterogeneous components and homogenous core of mercantilism reveals that Petty has to be considered in mercantilism. This distinctive feature builds a theoretical background which ensures the investigation of Pettys economic thought.
History of Economic Thought, Mercantilism, Population and Employment, Labour, Rent. JEL Classification: B00, B11, B31, J11.