Aim: To study the origin, branching pattern and termination of the brachial artery in 45 cadavers.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of two years during routine dissection of cadavers for undergraduate and postgraduate student training. A total of 45 limbs were studied.
Observations: The origin of brachial artery was normal in all cases. The profunda brachii artery was normal in all cases except one, in which it divided into two branches immediately after its formation. In all cases it took origin within a centimeter of lower border of teres major muscle. The superior ulnar collateral artery originated in the upper third in 3 cases and in the middle third in the remaining 42 cases. The inferior ulnar collateral artery was a branch of brachial artery in 44 cases and of ulnar artery in 1 case. The nutrient artery to the humerus generally took origin from the middle third of the brachial artery. Except in one case of high division, the brachial artery terminated distal to the elbow joint within two centimeters from it. Muscular branches had no regular pattern of origin or branching.
Conclusions: Knowledge of branching pattern of the brachial artery is of significance to clinicians, surgeons and also to correctly interpret radiological and ultrasonic investigative procedures. The causes of variations of vascular patterns are yet not completely known and the topic is open for research.
Vascular variations, Radial artery, Ulnar artery, Vas aberrans, Angiogenesis.