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Patterns of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate in Northern Pakistan

Mansoor Khan, Hidayat Ullah, Shazia Naz, Tahmeed Ullah, Hafeezullah Khan, Muhammad Tahir, Obaid Ullah.

Abstract
Objectives: To determine the frequency of different types of cleft lip and palate, geographical distribution and its association with consanguinity, family history and other syndromes in the Northern Pakistani population.
Study design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.
Settings: This study was performed in Plastic and Reconstructive units of Hayat Medical Complex Peshawar Pakistan, Aman Hospital Peshawar Pakistan and Abasin Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan from November 2010 to December 2011.
Material & Methods: All the patients, irrespective of their gender, presenting with cleft lip/palate deformities were included in the study. Previously operated cases and those who did not agree with the study protocol were excluded from the study. The data were collected through questionnaires as well as history and physical examination. The data were organized and analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17 (SPSS 17). The results were expressed in the form of tables and figures.
Results: A total of 159 patients of cleft lip and cleft palate deformities were included in the study, having a mean age of 3.5+6.59 years and containing 59.1% males and 40.9% females with a ratio of 1.4:1. A cleft lip with palate, cleft palate and cleft lip were found in 51.6%, 31.4% and 17% of cases, respectively. Left-sided clefts were most common in the cleft lip with palate and the isolated cleft lip deformity. A cleft lip with palate was a male dominant variety (62.8% of cases), while in the cleft palate variety, the dominant gender was female. In 61.6% of cases, the parent had a consanguineous relationship. In 21.4% of cases, family history was positive for the cleft lip/palate. Other congenital anomalies were associated in 10.7% of cases.
Conclusion: Cleft deformities of the lip and palate affect the male population more than females with cleft lips, in association with a cleft palate being the most common anomaly. Females are mainly affected by an isolated cleft palate. The high prevalence of these deformities in consanguineous marriages emphasizes educating people. The lower number of patients from distant distracts of Northern Pakistan calls for the attention of the health department.

Key words: cleft lip, cleft palate, consanguinity



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