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A study of random urine protein to creatinine ratio in the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome in children

Rakesh A. Navale, Mallikarjun R. Kobal, Rohit Dixit, Ningshen Themyaola.

Abstract
Background: The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of urine protein creatinine ratio (UP/UC) in a random sample for quantitative measurement of proteinuria in comparison with 24 hours urinary protein excretion in children of nephrotic syndrome having normal Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR).
Methods: The present study was a descriptive type of study which was conducted in the department of paediatrics, Jay Kay Lon mother and child hospital, government medical college, Kota. Cases were noted down into the proforma with respect to history, examination and investigation. All the patients were advised regarding 24 hours urine collection. They were asked to give a 24 hours urine sample starting at 9.00 am for total protein excretion rate. A random urine sample was obtained and urine protein/creatinine ratio was calculated. The data was analyzed by linear regression and by calculating the correlation coefficient between urinary protein/creatinine ratio and 24 hour urinary protein. Also chi-square test was applied for non-parametric data.
Results: Urine total protein in a timed 24 hour sample of nephrotic syndrome patients was in the range of 41.98-114.36 mg/m2/hour with the mean value of 64.76 mg/m2/hour. While as UP/UC ratio ranged from 2.33-5.2 with the mean value of 3.28. A significant correlation (r = 0.886) was found between timed 24 hour urinary protein and UP/UC ratio.
Conclusions: Thus we conclude that random urine protein-creatinine ratio is highly reliable and rapid test for quantification of proteinuria in children. It reflects the amount of protein in a 24 hour collection. Thus it avoids all the drawbacks which are associated with time collection method.

Key words: UP/UC ratio, Kidney disease, Renal function tests, Paediatrics, Nephrology



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