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IJHSR. 2015; 5(3): 238-249

Likelihood of Pneumocystis Pneumonia, Cryptococcus Meningitis and Tuberculosis after Experiencing Symptoms of Shortness of Breath, Fever and Cough among Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Tanzania.

Peter Memiah, Justice Mbizo, Eric Ndofor, Sekela Mwakyusa, Abuu Maghimbi, Patience Komba, Mtebe Majigo, Constance Shumba, Martine Etienne.

Background: Opportunistic infections (OI) still remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected persons presenting with advanced infection. We examine the proportion of deceased patients who were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with symptoms of shortness of breath, fever and cough and its effect in determining the likelihood for Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP), Cryptococcal Meningitis (CM) and Tuberculosis (TB).
Methods: A retrospective analysis of routinely collected program data was done for assessing factors related to mortality of 987 deceased adult patients who received ART at 6 health facilities between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2012. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted using STATA 12.0 to identify the risk of common opportunistic infections.
Results: About fifty two percent of all the deceased patients had experienced at least one symptom. Those who experienced shortness of breath 6 months before death were 10 times (95% CI: 5.9 17.6) more likely to have PCP and 4 times (95% CI: 2.8 5.6) more likely to have TB compared to those who did not have shortness of breath. ART patients who had experienced fever and cough 6 months before death were more likely to have PCP (OR= 5.8: 95% CI 2.9 11.6), likelihood for TB was 4.2 (95% CI: 3.0 5.8) and CM (OR = 2.1: 95% CI 1.2 - 3.6; p

Key words: ART patients, Opportunistic Infection, Tuberculosis, Cryptococcal Meningitis, Pneumocystis Pneumonia

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