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Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

Olatunji Mathew Kolawole, Kazeem Toyosi Olatunji, Kabir Adekunle Durowade, Augustine Adebayo Adeniyi, Luqman Omotayo Omokanye.

Abstract
Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5%) were sero-positive while 65 (32.5%) were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7%) were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality) while 186 (93%) were negative (had no cervical abnormality). Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country.

Key words: HPV infection, Cervical cytology, Women, Nigeria



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