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J Contemp Med. 2012; 2(1): 1-8


The effect of BCG vaccine from protection of type 1 diabetes mellitus

Mehmet Karaci, Murat Aydin.

Abstract
Type I diabetes mellitus (Type I DM) is a metabolic disease characterized chronic hyperglicemia which is the result of irreversible destruction of insulin secreting beta islet cells. It is suggested that auotimmun mechanisms, which occurs in any time with the effect of triggered enviromental factors, play role in the pathogenesis, in patients with genetic predisposition. Until now, there is no way to control blood glucose level except; insulin, diet and exercise, so that the protective methods are more important. We planned this study either BCG, which is used in variable diseases as a immmunomodulator, has a protective effect on the development of type I DM, or can affect the time of the diagnosis.
We included totally 130 children; 70 (%53.6) boys and 60 (%47) girls with type I DM who had been followed up in our clinic and compared with 260 healthy children in control group. The diagnosis age of our cases are between 6 month to 17.5 years (mean 8.7  3.7). There were one BCG scar in 72 (%55.4), two scars in 49 (%37.7), and three scars in 6 (%4.6) of the patients. Three (%2.3) of the them had no BCG scars. In the control group 46 (%17.7) of have one, 193 (%74.2) of have two, and 21 (%8.19 ) of have three BCG scars. The type I DM cases had less BCG scars compared the control group (p=0.0001). There is not significant difference between the number of BCG scars and the time of the diagnosis. Especially, we found that the assesment of BCG in the first month of life, is more protectetive (p=0.0001). The assesment time of BCG is not effective on the diagnosis of age.
As a result, we concluded that if BCG is vaccine is applied at least twice and , the first dose is gives in the newborn period may exert a protective effect for the development of type I DM in children .

Key words: Type I diabetes mellitus, BCG



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