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Chemical, rheological and bread characteristics of wheat flour influenced by different forms of chia (Salvia hispanica L.)

Marie Hruskova, Ivan Svec.

Abstract
Chia flour from white and brown seeds were tested in dry and hydrated form. In flour composites, ash and protein content was verifiably increased by both chia types (up to about 2%). Non-starch polysaccharides content also increased, as the sucrose SRC confirmed. Protein technological quality was affected by alternative plant materials, measured as Zeleny value diminishing. Water suspension viscosity and dough elasticity increased during amylograph and extensigraph tests. For composites including hydrated chia form, somewhat higher elasticity was determined; the change was positively reflected in baking test results (bread volume increased about 20% at least). Bread crumb morphology changed gradually, determined by deeper penetration rate. Higher elasticity of dough containing hydrated chia form limited small pores coalescence into larger ones, resulting into firmer crumb compared to bread with dry chia flour. That was verified by soft diminishing of mean pores area and reversely by increase in pores density within order of samples wheat bread – dry chia flour bread – hydrated chia flour bread. Pore sizes distribution was varied, too – by chia flour, counts of small and large pores (area smaller than 1.5 mm2 and larger than 4.2 mm2, respectively) were magnified approximately twice and lowered to ca half, respectively.

Key words: wheat flour, chia, solvent retention capacity, specific bread volume, image analysis



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