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Egypt. J. Exp. Biol. (Zoo.). 2013; 9(1): 61-70


PYRETHROID NEUROTOXIC IMPACTS ON MEDITERRANEAN FISH STRESS, GROWTH AND METABOLISM

Ibrahim A. El-Elaimy Mohamed F. F. Bayomy Asmaa G. Khallaf Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez Juan M. Mancera.

Abstract
Pyrethroids are synthetic insecticides that have replaced organochlorine pesticides in the last decades. The effects of two pyrethroids (cypermethrin and permethrin) on plasma metabolites levels, hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis and growth axis in juveniles of Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis were studied. The 24 h and 72 h LC50 values of cypermethrin and permethrin for Solea senegalensis were 500 µg L-1 and 900 µg L-1, respectively. The specimens were divided into 5 experimental groups exposed to: i) ethanol vehicle in water (control), ii) exposure to 1/25 value of cypermethrin LC50 (20 µg L-1) (in ethanol), iii) exposure to 1/10 value of cypermethrin LC50 (50 µg L-1), iv) exposure to 1/25 value of permethrin LC50 (36 µg L-1), and v) exposure to 1/10 value of permethrin LC50 (90 µg L-1). Sublethal exposure to cypermethrin and permethrin significantly lowered plasma glucose, lactate and triglycerides levels, while total soluble proteins increased significantly. In cypermethrin treated fish, corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) gene expression enhanced significantly with the low dose; while neither doses of permethrin altered this expression. However, both insecticides increased plasma cortisol levels. Cypermethrin and permethrin enhanced insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) expression but decreased PACAP expression at both doses. This study indicated that both pyrethroids (cypermethrin and permethrin) insecticides enhanced stress and inhibited growth axes.

Key words: Pyrethroid, Toxicity, Fish, Hormone, Neuropeptide, Gene



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