Efficiency of Melia azadrach fruit water extract (F.W.E.) was studied on Biomphalaria alexandrina non-infected and Schistosoma mansoni-infected snails. The LC50 and LC90 values of F.W.E. were 161.4 and 372.6 ppm, respectively for non-infected adult snails after 72 hrs of exposure. Miracidicidal and cercaricidal activity of M. azadrach F.W.E. were studied. The LC50 and LC90 were 875.12, 13370.1 ppm, respectively for miracidia and 140.13, 561.4 ppm, respectively for cercariae after 60 minutes of exposure. Over 4 weeks of exposure, the tested concentration of M. azadrach F.W.E. (80 ppm) caused a significantly acceleration of the egg laying capacity of infected and non-infected snails. The treatment of infected snails led to reduction in prepatent period and significant increased the cercarial output. It also increased total hemocytes count of non-infected snails during the period from 72 hrs to 4th week while the total hemocytes count was significantly reduced in treated-infected snails during four weeks post infection. Moreover, the plant extract induced alterations of differential hemocytes count of infected and non - infected snails. Granular hemocytes were observed to be the major responsive hemocytes in treated snails. Also, some morphological abnormalities were observed in hemocytes during the first 3 days and ended by the 1st week. Elctrophoretic analysis of total plasma protein using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis revealed qualitative and quantitative differences with occasional appearance and absence of certain bands. The results indicated that treatment led to significant reduction of total plasma protein content.
Melia azadrach –Biomphalaria alexandrina – Schistosoma mansoni – Plasma protein – Hemocytes- SDS-PAGE