Ebola virus disease (EVD) formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a severe fatal illness caused by infection with Ebola virus. Ebola virus disease first identified in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo, in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. The natural reservoir host of Ebola viruses has not yet been identified, however fruit bats are considered primary source of infection by spillover events. Ebola virus enters the patient through broken skin, mucous membranes or parenterally. EVD symptoms can appear from 2 to 21 days post exposure and are characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, fatigue, severe headache, sore throat, diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain and unexplained haemorrhage. No FDA-approved vaccine or medicine is available for Ebola. Management is based on symptomatology by providing intravenous fluids, electrolyte balancing, vitals monitoring and treating other infections. Several vaccines are being developed and the two most advanced vaccines identified based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing an Ebola virus protein (VSV-EBOV) and recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus expressing an Ebola virus protein (ChAd-EBOV) - are currently being tested in humans for safety and efficacy and trials were started. Scientists are working on variety of vaccines and antiviral drugs tor Ebola viruses till than prevention of disease spreading by public awareness and community engagement are keys to control the outbreaks of Ebola virus disease.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), Ebola virus protein (VSV-EBOV), Phospho-morpholino oligonucleotides (PMOs), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV)