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Bacteriological analysis of bile in cholecystectomy patients

Pratik M. Parekh, Nimish J. Shah, Pokhraj Prakashchandra Suthar, Devang H. Patel, Chetan Mehta, Hitesh D. Tadvi.

Abstract
Background: Cholecystectomy is currently a frequently performed operation. The presence of gallstones within either the gallbladder or biliary tree is associated with the bacterial colonization of the bile. Acute cholangitis spans a continuous clinical spectrum and can progress from a local biliary infection to advanced disease with sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Therefore, it is important to know the microbiological flora of the gallbladder before prophylactic antibiotics are given. Aims & objectives: To evaluate the microbiological profile of bile from gall bladder in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. To determine the appropriate antibiotic for preoperative prophylaxis in cholecystectomy patients based on the microbiological profile of bile.
Methods: The study was a prospective study carried out in SSG Hospital. A total of 78 patients undergone cholecystectomy who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. 3cc bile was aspirated from all patients, this collected bile from gallbladder before cholecystectomy was transported to the laboratory in sterile test-tube. The specimen was evaluated to find out whether it is sterile or has any bacteria present. The types of bacteria are determined and whether the amount of isolate is significant or not. And sensitivity to antibacterial agents against antibiotics was determined.
Results: 19 patients showed positive bile culture in which Escherichia coli was the most common isolated bacteria (63.16% among positive bile culture and 15.38% among all patients) and bile was sterile in 59 patients (75.64%). Other organisms isolated were Pseudomonas (3.85%), Klebsiella (2.56%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus viridans (1.28%). Positive bile culture was a more common finding (50% of patients were bile culture positive) in patients with acute cholecystitis in this study. Post-operative wound infection is more common (15.79%) in group of patients with isolated organism from bile. There is a strong correlation between bile culture and wound culture (75%).
Conclusions: It was found that sensitivity to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins was higher as compared to aminoglycoside in acute as well as chronic cholecystitis. In this study levofloxacin also shows good sensitivity against isolated organism from bile. Piperacilin and tazobactum also shows good sensitivity against isolated organism from bile and they are more effective against pseudomonas. The resistance to second-generation cephalosporins and aminoglycoside has increased. For preoperative prophylaxis third and fourth-generation cephalosporins and levofloxacin show better promise and may be used as the first line of preoperative prophylaxis in operations for acute and chronic cholecystitis undergoing cholecystectomy.

Key words: Surgery, Cholecystectomy, Bacteriology



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