Objectives: To determine the clinico-pathological features, histopathological grading, staging and their associations in patients presenting with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Methodology: A total of 81 patients presenting with various histological subtypes, grades and stages of OSCC were recruited from the Radiotherapy Department of INMOL Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan from March 2014 to December 2014. Clinical and gross examination findings including age, gender, laterality, site of tumor, etiological habits, oral hygiene, gross appearance, histological subtype, grade and clinical stage of the tumor were recorded.
Results: The mean age of patients was 52.74±14.14 years with male to female ratio 1.8:1, of which 52 (64.2%) were male and 29 (35.8%) were female. The most common presenting complaint was non healing ulcer which was seen in 51 (63%) patients, followed by both non healing ulcer and fungating mass in 17 (21%) and fungating mass in 13 (16%). The most common site for OSCC in oral cavity was tongue in 45 (55.6%) patients, followed by buccal mucosa, floor of mouth, retromolar area and lip and palate, in descending order. The right side was affected more commonly and was noticed in 50 (61.7%) patients. Smoking accounted for 37 (45.7%) patients with predominantly poor oral hygiene in 45 (55.6%) patients. Moderately differentiated tumors were mostly observed in 42 (51.9%) with advanced clinical stage at the time of diagnosis in 46 (56.8%) patients. There was a strong association of site of tumor with appearance, grading, addictive habits, gender, age and clinical staging.
Conclusion: Fourth to sixth decade of life with male predominance, smoking and pan chewing habits with poor oral hygiene were common features of OSCC. The most common histological subtype was moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma while well differentiated tumors form the largest number. The patients usually present with advanced clinical stage.
OSCC, histological subtypes, TNM staging, Oral hygiene