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Efficacy and Phytochemical Analysis of Aqueous Extract of Calotropis procera against Selected Dermatophytes

Rabiu Muhammad Aliyu, Mikaeel Bala Abubakar, Adamu Bello Kasarawa, Yakubu Umar Dabai, Nafiu Lawal, Muhammad Bashir Bello, Aminu Yusuf Fardami.

Abstract
Since ancient time, an increased interest had been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing and the treatment of fungal disease worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available fungal drugs. Since ancient time, it has been a known tradition practised in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera (Tumfafiya) to treat Tinea capitis (Makero) in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to designed to ascertain the above claim scientifically. Latex extract of Calotropis procera was screened for their antifungal and phytochemical properties. Agar incorporation method against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton sp., Microsporum sp. and Epidermophyton sp. shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these three filamentous fungi to varying extents. Statistical analysis of the results shows that Trichophyton sp. is the most susceptible and thus highly inhabited by the latex extract followed by the Microsporum Sp. and Epidermopyton sp. was least inhibited. Undiluted latex (100%) of C. procera gave the highest inhibitory impacts on the dermatophytes and corresponding lowest least (20%) concentration. The phytochemical analysis of the latex extract indicates the presence alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone and triterpenoids. The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of Tinea capitis (ringworm) practiced in the society and therefore, its use in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged.

Key words: Calotropis procera, Antifungal activity, Dermatophytes



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