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Evaluation of nephroprotective and nephrocurative activity of Solanum nigrum on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in experimental rats

Vimlesh Kushwaha, Monica Sharma, Pinki Vishwakarma, Manish Saini, Shaily Bhatt, Kuldeep K. Saxena.

Abstract
Background: Aminoglycoside antibiotics are most commonly used drugs for the prevention and treatment of gram negative infections. Nephrotoxicity is the main side effect that restricts its long duration use. Modern medicines to treat nephrotoxicity are costly and also not vary effective. Solanum nigrum fruits, having potent antioxidant property can be used for nephroprotection as well as nephrocure.
Methods: The study was carried out in two phases. Nephroprotective phase, 54 rats were randomized in 3 groups named G10, G20 & G30 according to 10, 20 & 30 days of treatment. Each group was randomized in three subgroups i.e. control C group [received normal saline (2 ml/100 gm/day) daily for test duration], GT group [received normal saline (2 ml/100 gm/day) daily for test duration & intra-peritoneal gentamicin (40mg/kg) for last five days] & SNT group [received orally S.nigrum (200 mg/kg/day) daily for the test duration and intra-peritoneal gentamicin (40 mg/kg) for last five days]. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose of gentamicin (on 11th, 21st and 31st day). In nephrocurative phase, 72 rats were randomised in two groups of 36 rats each. Group-1 received intra-peritoneal gentamicin (40 mg/dl) for five days. Group-2 received intra-peritoneal gentamicin (40 mg/dl) for five days and then S.nigrum (200 mg/kg/day) orally till the rats are sacrificed. Six rats from each group were sacrificed on 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 12th and 14th day after administration of last dose of gentamicin. Blood sample were taken for evaluation of BUN and serum creatinine.
Results: There was significant decrease in BUN and serum creatinine values as compared to GT group in all test duration in phase-1. In phase two there was no significant difference of these markers in two groups.
Conclusions: S.nigrum fruits extract provide nephroprotection against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.

Key words: Nephroprotective, Nephrocurative, Solanum nigrum, Gentamicin



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