Radiographical Variations of the Normal Female Urethra: Classification with Voiding CystourethrographyBahattin Ulu, Elif Karadeli, Orhan Özbek, Ahmet Özturk, Dilek Kösehan, Şükriye Yavuzer, Emin Alp Niron.
Objective: Female urethra can be visualized in different anatomical shapes during voiding cystourethrography.We presented the different types of urethral shapes which we encountered and to correlate our larger series with literature.
Materials and methods: The VCU examinations of pediatric patients for the investigation of mainly vesicoureteral reflux or other urinary system pathologies mostly referred with the prediagnosis of urinary tract infections and enuresis nocturna were retrospectively evaluated. 381 patients without any micturation symptoms and with normal urethral meatus underwent 426 vesicoureteral reflux examinations. The shapes of urethra were described and then classified according to the sort of shapes appeared during vesicoureteral reflux examination.
Results: We identified six different types of urethral morphology. The most common configuration in our study was cylindirical shaped urethra (n=170) (44%). These were subclassified as thick (n=38) (9.9%), thin (n=25) (6.5%), long (n=65) (17%) and short (n=42) (11%). Others were goblet (n=69) (19%), fusiform (n=66) (17%), spinning top (n=44) (12%), wedge (n=27) (7%), and beaded (n=5) (1%) shaped urethras.
Conclusion: During the vesicoureteral reflux procedure female urethra can be visualised in diverse shapes. Radiologist and pediatricians must become familiar to the normal anatomical shapes of female urethra for not to interpret it as pathological.
female urethra,voiding cystourethrography, radiographical variations
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