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Prevalence and factors influencing anaemia among pregnant women in rural Mysuru, India

Anup Gopinath, N. C. Ashok, Praveen Kulkarni, Renuka Manjunath.

Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in India and the world. Determining the status and factors influencing anaemia among pregnant women in rural areas is essential to treat as well as prevent the same. The objective was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women of rural areas of Mysuru, India and to determine the factors influencing anaemia among the study participants.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the villages under PHCs of Hadinaru and Suttur of Nanjangud Taluk, Mysuru district, India for a period of 18 months. A total of 300 pregnant women residing in these villages, and consenting to participate were included in the study. A structured proforma was used to collect sociodemographic details. Haemoglobin was estimated using Sahliís haemoglobinometer and type of anaemia was determined by peripheral blood smear. The data was entered using Epi Data v3.1 software, and analyzed using R statistical Software v3.0.2.
Results: The prevalence of anaemia was 51%, majority had mild anaemia (37%). 79% of the study participants were aged 20-29 years, 85% studied upto High school, 83% belonged to lower Socioeconomic class and 66% lived in joint families. The important factors influencing anaemia were poor nutrition (49%), low socioeconomic status (39%) and open defecation (51%).
Conclusions: More than half of the pregnant women were anaemic. Also, majority of the anaemic women had mild anaemia, which showed the positive impact of MCH services. The factors influencing anaemia which have been identified in this study need to be addressed to reduce the burden of anaemia among pregnant women in our country.

Key words: Anemia, Pregnant women, Rural health

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