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A study on incidence of congenital anomalies in newborns and their association with maternal factors: a prospective study

Rekha Thaddanee, Hemant S. Patel, Nilesh Thakor.

Background: Congenital malformation represents defects in morphogenesis during early fetal life. Congenital anomalies account for 815% of perinatal deaths and 13-16% of neonatal deaths in India. The objective was to study incidence of clinically detectable congenital malformations in newborns delivered at a tertiary hospital and their association with maternal factors.
Methods: The present study is a prospective study of all the newborns delivered at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, GMERS Medical College, Dharpur-Patan, Gujarat, India for a period of three years from 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2015. Total 2760 consecutive births including both live born babies and still born babies were examined after taking verbal and written consent of their mothers for a visible structural anomalies to determine the overall incidence of congenital malformations and their association with maternal factors. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software (trial version).
Results: A total of 2760 babies were born out of which 38 were twins. Total numbers of malformed babies were 34, so total point incidence of congenital anomalies turned out to be 1.23%. Out of total 2722 mothers 1815 (66.7%) were in the age group of 21-35 years and out of them 30 (1.70%) malformed babies were born. 167 (6.13%) mothers had consanguineous marriage and out of them 5 (2.99%) had malformed babies. 9 (0.33%) mothers had previous malformed child and out of them 3 mothers gave birth of 3 (33.33%) malformed babies. 397 (14.58%) mothers had history of previous abortion and out of them 10 (2.51%) had malformed babies. 151 (5.54%) mothers had severe anemia and out of them 09 (5.90%) had malformed babies.
Conclusions: From present study it has been concluded that congenital anomalies in newborns were significantly associated with maternal factors like maternal age, consanguinity, previous child with malformation, history of previous abortion and severe anemia.

Key words: Congenital anomalies, Congenital malformations, Still births, Birth defects, Maternal factors

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