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Current updates on diagnostic methodologies for tick-borne hemoparasitic diseases in equids: A review

Lawan Adamu, Usman Aliyu Turaki, Yachilla M. Bukar-Kolo, Anas Yusuf Husainy, Iliyasu Dauda, Yakaka Wakil, Isa Adamu Gulani, Falmata Ali Abadam, Aliyu Usman Mani.

Abstract
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) or otherwise called equine piroplasmosis (EP) are the foremost economic limitations to equids production. Thus, reducing the breeding capability and athletic performance of equids globally. Identification of these haemoparasites is crucial in understanding their distribution in the population and it is imperative to discern between species and subspecies that are responsible for the occurrence of the disease conditions. Conventional procedures such as microscopic and serological evaluations do not usually meet these prerequisites. Diagnostic contrivances, such as the complement fixation test (CFT), the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have been efficaciously used for many years. Furthermore, DNA-based investigations for identification, differentiation and classification of different haemoparasites have also been established. Molecular diagnostic procedures, such as DNA hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcriptomics, proteomics, metagenomics and metabolomics, permit the uncovering of parasites in blood, tissues or ticks with optimal sensitivity, specificity and consistency. In addition, these procedures can be exploited to detect definite species and subspecies. The prerequisite of these investigations must include proper premeditation and validation, these investigations provide an effective device for molecular studies, with greater benefits of flexibility to standardization. The application of these procedures for studying TBDs or EP globally will be irreplaceable for a long period from now. Therefore, the aim of this review is to draw up the specifics of the procedures in more convenient form for practitioners and researchers.
KEY WORDS: Diagnosis, equids, molecular, transcriptomics, proteomics, metagenomics, metabolomics, haemoparasites, tick-borne diseases

Key words: Diagnosis, Equids, Hemoparasites, Metagenomics, Metabolomics, Proteomics, Tick-borne diseases, Transcriptomics



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