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A study of incidence of congenital anomalies in newborn: a hospital based study

Nivedita Prashar, Shashi Gupta, Reeta Thakur, Preeti Sharma, Gopal Sharma.

Abstract
Background: Congenital anomalies have emerged as a main cause of perinatal mortality as well as infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of congenital anomalies and to study associated factors.
Methods: It is an observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of SMGS Hospital during a period of one year from October, 2012 to September, 2013. All women with anomalies proven on Ultrasonography and those having no antenatal record but after delivery/abortion, examination of newborns revealed anomalies; were included in the study.
Results: The pattern of congenital anomalies included Central nervous system (49.60%), Urinary system (13.79%), musculoskeletal system (12.99%), GIT (7.16%), CVS (5.83%) etc. The overall incidence of congenital anomalies was 1.85%. Higher incidence of anomalies was found in babies of mother between 26-30 years of age (2.13%) and parity of 4 and above (3.65%). Frequency was more common in Muslims as compared to Hindus (2.8% vs 1.68%), in non-cephalic presentation as compared to cephalic presentation (10.28% versus 1.51%).
Conclusion: This study stresses upon incidence of congenital anomalies as they are an important cause of perinatal mortality. To decrease the incidence of various congenital anomalies and their prevalence in the particular region, it is important that the distribution and prevalence are identified in that region and country as a whole.

Key words: Congenital, Anomaly, Malformation, Newborn



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