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Int Surg J. 2016; 3(3): 1392-1398

The study of abdominal trauma: patterns of injury, clinical presentation, organ involvement and associated injury

Hemang A. Panchal, Avadhesh M. Ramanuj.

Background: The aim was to study the cases of abdominal trauma in context of: age/sex distribution, mode of injury (accidents, fall, assault etc.). Type of injury (blunt injury or penetrating injury), clinical presentation, role of investigations and organ involvement.
Methods: The study of 50 cases of abdominal trauma, including blunt as well as penetrating trauma was conducted prospectively during the period of 23 months (January 2010 to November 2011). Patients of all age and sex who were admitted in our department after abdominal trauma were potential candidate for enrolment in this study and study was done in context to fulfill our aim.
Results: In our study, the abdominal trauma is more common in age group 21-40 years (n = 30,60%) with male predominance (M:F: 7.3:1), blunt injury abdomen (n = 37, 74%) is more common than penetrating injury (n = 13, 26%) with RTA (n = 24, 48%) being the most common cause followed by fall (n = 16, 32%) and stab injury (n = 09, 18%), Abdominal pain (n = 49, 98%), tachycardia (n = 40, 80%) and abdominal distension (n = 25, 50%) are the most common clinical features in all abdominal trauma patients. In our study pattern of injury are: liver (n = 16, 32%), spleen (n = 15, 30%) and small bowel (n = 9, 24.32%). In polytrauma patients abdominal trauma is more commonly associated with thoracic injuries (n = 19, 38%) and orthopedic injuries (n = 7, 34%).
Conclusions: From our study we can conclude abdominal trauma can present differently and may injure organ depending upon pattern of injury and require clinical assessment, expedite investigations to set goal for prompt primary resuscitation and timely definitive treatment.

Key words: Blunt injury abdomen, Trauma, Injury, Tachycardia

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