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IJHSR. 2016; 6(4): 462-469


Insight to Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1.

Khadeer Ahmed Ghori, Syed Junaid Ahmed, Abdur Rahman Mohd, Mohd Aslam Ali Hashmi.

Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) is a global pandemic with a prevalence of 35 million people living with it in 2013 compared to 29.8 million in 2001, but the people living with HIV are living longer owing to broader access to antiretroviral therapy. There has been a decline in new infections being reported by 38.23% from 2001 to 2013 which is appreciable. There has been a substantial increase in the understanding of the pathogenesis mechanism of HIV-1 at cellular level with role of host molecules like intra cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) being investigated which increases the viral infectivity and viral micro RNA’s such asvmiR98 and vmiR99 playing a role in latent HIV-1 infection. RV144 trial of HIV-1 vaccine conducted in Thailand showed 31% reduction in HIV-1 acquisition. Major developments in prevention of HIV-1 include antiretroviral therapy for preventing vertical transmission from mother to child, medical male circumcision, and antiretroviral therapy to prevent sexual transmission. Research towards broader understanding in key targets of HIV-1 infectivity and vaccine development are in progress.

Key words: Human immunodeficiency virus 1, pathophysiology, prevention, vaccine.



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