Aims and Objectives: Hyperlipidemia refers to abnormally elevated levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood. Elevated serum cholesterol is a modifiable risk factor that is associated with a cardiovascular disease (CVD) with an estimated 4.4 million deaths each year. A positive association between serum triglyceride concentration and risk of coronary heart disease has been observed in many case-control studies. Infection such as periodontitis causes bacteremia and/or endotoxemia producing a cytokine cascade that leads to increased levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines. These molecules promote enhanced lipogenesis, increased lipolysis, and reduced lipid clearance resulting in hyperlipidemia. Hence the aim of the study is to estimate the serum lipid levels in chronic periodontitis patients.
Materials and Methods: 100 subjects were screened for the study and were grouped as experimental (50 subjects with chronic periodontitis) and control (50 systemically healthy subjects). To assess the periodontal condition all the subjects underwent the estimation of Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL). Blood samples were obtained and analyzed for serum lipid levels of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Triglyceride (TG) and Total Cholesterol (CHOL).
Results: The mean values of LDL, HDL, TG and CHOL were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis subjects than healthy controls.
Conclusion: The study concludes that patients with chronic periodontitis exhibited higher serum lipid levels. Hence these patients may be at a higher risk for further coronary events.
Chronic Periodontitis, Low Density Lipoprotein, High Density Lipoprotein, Triglyceride, Total Cholesterol