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Obstructive sleep apnea among patients attending Family Medicine Centers, Military Hospital in Khamis Mushait city, Saudi Arabia

Mana Mubarak Alshahrani, Sultan Mohammed Alshahrani, Ibrahim Saeed Alarfaj, Shamsun Nahar.

Abstract
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition affecting at least 2% to 4% of the adult population. Patients are not routinely screened for symptoms of OSA as a part of their initial medical evaluation.

Objective: To identify the prevalence and correlates of individuals who are at risk of OSA among adults attending to family medicine centers in Military Hospital in Khamis Mushait city, KSA.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out utilizing the Berlin questionnaire to identify patients who are at high risk for OSA among adult attendees of family medicine centers in Military Hospital in Khamis Mushait city, KSA. The study was conducted between October 1st and December 31st, 2015. An interview questionnaire including in addition to Belin questionnaire, demographic and personal data, smoking, and medical history was utilized. In addition, anthropometric measures including body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), and waist/hip ratio for central obesity were measured.

Result: The study included 413 patients. Their age ranged between 18 and 93 years with a mean of 39.6 13.5 years. Slightly more than half of them (217; 52.5%) were females. Approximately half of the participants (201; 48.7%) were obese and 124 (30%) were overweight. Sixty-one subjects, representing 14.8% participants were at high risk of sleep apnea syndrome. Snoring was present in 37.3% subjects. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that females were less likely to be at high risk of sleep apnea syndrome compared to males (AOR = 0.24 95% CI: 0.100.54, p = 0.001). Obese subjects were at higher risk of sleep apnea syndrome compared to normal subjects (AOR = 12.67 95% CI: 3.0053.55, p = 0.001). Current smokers were more likely to be at higher risk of sleep apnea syndrome compared to nonsmokers (AOR = 3.46 95% CI: 1.259.58, p = 0.017). Patients with history of chronic diseases were at higher risk of sleep apnea syndrome compared to those without history of chronic diseases (AOR = 2.96 95% CI: 1.505.81, p = 0.002).

Conclusion: The study has shown that a considerable proportion of adults attending family medicine centers in Khamis Mushait, KSA are at higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Males, smokers, obese, and those with history of chronic diseases were at higher significant risk for OSA compared to their counterparts.

Key words: Obstructive sleep apnea, Berlin questionnaire, body mass index, neck circumference



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