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Ondansetron versus palonosetron: a comparative study on efficacy and safety in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting

Bhanu Prakash G., Umamaheswara Rao K., Subash K. R., Vijaya Chandra Reddy K., Jyothi Prasad K., Vasundara Devi B..

Abstract
Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a major complication in patients who undergo surgery under general anaesthesia. Various drug regimens and antiemetic interventions have been tried from time-to-time for prevention of PONV but with a variable success rate. This study compares the safety and efficacy of ondansetron and palonosetron in preventing PONV in such patients.
Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 60 ASA grades - I and II patients of either sex, aged between 20 to 50 years, scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia, 30 of who received 4 mg ondansetron and the remaining 30 received 0.05 mg palonosetron intravenously 5 minutes before induction of anaesthesia. Postoperatively they were observed for 24 hours for complete response, any episodes of nausea and vomiting, their severity, need for rescue antiemetic and side effects. After the study, results were compiled and the data was analysed using Studentís T test. P value 0.5). Complete antiemetic response was 60% in ondansetron group and 83% in palonosetron group. There was no significant statistical difference between both the groups in causing headache (p >0.5) and dizziness (p >0.05).
Conclusions: Our study concludes that the antiemetic efficacy is comparable for both ondansetron and palonosetron in the given doses in preventing PONV and none is superior. Both the study drugs had almost the same adverse effect profile.

Key words: Surgery, General anaesthesia, PONV, Ondansetron, Palonosetron



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